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Home arrow Law arrow United States law and policy on transitional justice : principles, politics, and pragmatics

Source

BIBLIOGRAPHY

I. Primary Sources

A. Personal Interviews

B. Documents Obtained Through Freedom of Information Act Requests

II. Secondary Sources[1]

A. Transitional Justice and Related Human Rights Issues

B. Multiple Atrocities

C. Multiple War Crimes Tribunals

D. Multiple Hybrid Tribunals

E. Military Commissions/Tribunals

F. Universal Jurisdiction

G. Armenian Genocide

H. Nazis/IMT

I. Adolf Eichmann

J. Japanese/IMTFE

K. Pol Pot/Khmer Rouge/ECCC

L. The Balkans

M. ICTY

N. Rwanda

O. ICTR

P. Gacaca

Q. ICC

R. International Citizens’ War Crimes Tribunals

S. Truth Commissions

T. Exile

U. Lustration

V. Amnesty

W. Lethal Force

X. Indefinite Detention

Y. Democratic Peace Theory

Z. Foreign Policy Analysis/U.S. Foreign Policy

I. Primary Sources

A. PERSONAL INTERVIEWS[2]

I conducted a total of twenty-eight interviews with twenty people. Below is a chart outlining the interviews conducted and formatted as follows:

  • (1) Number: This column provides a unique number for each interview I conducted. The order is not chronological by interview date; it is simply the order in which the interviews were entered into this database. Note that I interviewed some people multiple times. Each interview is listed separately.
  • (2) Interviewee: This column provides the name of the interviewee. The interviewee’s name format is: surname, first name, and then any initials or other identifiers (e.g., Jr., II).
  • (3) Type: This column provides the interviewee’s profession during the time frame for which I interviewed the person. Three types of professions are indicated in the chart: USG Official, UN Official, and Scholar. Of course, many of these individuals have held different types of professions at other times. Each individual within a particular type is grouped together in alphabetical order by surname.
  • (4) Title: This column provides the interviewee’s title during the time frame about which I interviewed the person. If the person was a USG or UN official, the chart indicates the years during which the person held that particular title. Of course, many of these individuals have held different titles at other times.
  • (5) Date: This column provides the date on which I conducted the interview. The date format is year, month, and day (YYYY.MM.DD).
  • (6) Method: This column provides the method by which I conducted the interview. I employed two methods: “Oral” and “Written.” Where the interview was oral, I conducted it either in person or over the phone. Where the interview was written, I conducted it via email, and the date corresponds to that on which I received the interviewee’s response, not the date on which I sent my questions.
  • (7) Interview—Shorthand: This column provides a unique abbreviation for each interview. I employ this shorthand to refer to these interviews in this book.

(1)

Numbej

  • (2)
  • * Interviewee

(3)

Type

(4)

Title

(5)

Date

(6)

Method

(7)

Interview— Shorthand

1

Bennet, Douglas J.

USG

Official

1993-1995: U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for International Organization Affairs

2003.08.29

Oral

Bennet

interview

2

Bushnell,

Prudence

USG

Official

1993-1996: Principal U.S. Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs

2003.09.02

Oral

Bushnell interview 1

3

Bushnell,

Prudence

USG

Official

1993-1996: Principal U.S. Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs

2004.01.02

Written

Bushnell interview 2

(1)

Numbe

(2)

r Interviewee

(3)

Type

(4)

Title

(5)

Date

(6)

Method

(7)

Interview— Shorthand

4

Johnston, Harry A., II

USG

Official

1992-1994: Chairman, Subcommittee on Africa, House Committee on International Relations, U.S. Congress

2003.03.12

Oral

Johnston

interview

5

Kimble, Melinda L.

USG

Official

1991-1997: U.S. Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for International Organization Affairs

2003.10.08

Oral

Kimble interview 1

6

Kimble, Melinda L.

USG

Official

1991-1997: U.S. Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for International Organization Affairs

2003.10.21

Oral

Kimble interview 2

7

Lake,

Anthony

USG

Official

1993-1997: U.S. National Security Adviser

2003.09.09

Oral

Lake

interview

8

Matheson, Michael J.

USG

Official

1990-2000: Principal Deputy Legal Adviser, U.S. Department of State

2003.08.26

Oral

Matheson interview 1

9

Matheson, Michael J.

USG

Official

1990-2000: Principal Deputy Legal Adviser, U.S. Department of State

2005.11.11

Written

Matheson interview 2

10

Matheson, Michael J.

USG

Official

1990-2000: Principal Deputy Legal Adviser, U.S. Department of State

2008.07.29

Written

Matheson interview 3

11

Rice, Susan

USG

Official

1993-1995: Director for International Organizations and Peacekeeping, U.S. National Security Council

2003.10.13

Oral

Rice

interview

12

Scharf, Michael P.

USG

Official

1991-1993: Attorney-Adviser, United Nations Affairs, U.S. Department of State

2008.07.30

Oral

Scharf

interview

13

Scheffer, David J.

USG

Official

1993-1996: Senior Advisor and Counsel to Ambassador Albright, U.S. Mission to the United Nations

2003.06.24

Oral

Scheffer interview 1

14

Scheffer, David J.

USG

Official

1993-1996: Senior Advisor and Counsel to Ambassador Albright, U.S. Mission to the United Nations

2005.11.18

Written

Scheffer interview 2

15

Shattuck,

John

USG

Official

1993-1998: U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor

2003.10.09

Oral

Shattuck interview 1

16

Shattuck,

John

USG

Official

1993-1998: U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor

2005.11.21

Oral

Shattuck interview 2

17

Shattuck,

John

USG

Official

1993-1998: U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor

2008.08.06

Written

Shattuck interview 3

18

Silverwood,

James

USG

Official

1998-2012: Regional Director,

Africa and the Middle East,

Office of Overseas Prosecutorial Development, Assistance, and Training, U.S. Department of Justice

2004.01.03

Written

Silverwood

interview

19

St. Hilaire, Pierre

USG

Official

2000-2002: U.S. Resident Legal Advisor to Rwanda, Office of Overseas Prosecutorial Development Assistance and Training, U.S. Department of Justice

2004.01.05

Written

St. Hilaire interview

(1)

Numbe

(2)

r Interviewee

(3)

Type

(4)

Title

(5)

Date

(6)

Method

(7)

Interview— Shorthand

20

Stanton,

Gregory

USG

Official

1992-1999: Political Officer, Office for United Nations Political Affairs, Bureau of International Organization Affairs, U.S. Department of State

2003.06.26

Oral

Stanton interview 1

21

Stanton,

Gregory

USG

Official

1992-1999: Political Officer, Office for United Nations Political Affairs, Bureau of International Organization Affairs, U.S. Department of State

2003.08.25

Oral

Stanton interview 2

22

Walker, Stephen W.

USG

Official

1993: Desk Officer, Croatia, U.S. Department of State

2008.08.28

Written

Walker

interview

23

Ward, George F., J

USG . Official

1992-1994: Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for International Organization Affairs

2003.10.09

Oral

Ward

interview

24

Blewitt,

Graham

UN

Official

1993-2003: Deputy Prosecutor, ICTY

2003.06.11

Oral

Blewitt

interview

25

Johnson,

Michael

UN

Official

2002: Acting Deputy Prosecutor, ICTR

2003.08.05

Oral

Johnson

interview

26

Schrag,

Minna

UN

Official

1994-1995: Senior Trial Attorney, ICTY

2003.09.04

Oral

Schrag

interview

27

Des Forges, Alison

Scholar

Author, Leave None to Tell the Story; 1990-2009: Senior Advisor, Africa Division, Human Rights Watch

2003.05.24

Oral

Des Forges interview

28

Melvern,

Linda

Scholar

Author, A People Betrayed: The Role of the West in Rwanda’s Genocide; Author, Conspiracy to Murder: The Rwanda Genocide and the International Community

2003.06.16

Oral

Melvern

interview

B. DOCUMENTS OBTAINED THROUGH FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT REQUESTS[3] I received a total of 194 declassified documents from the U.S./DoS, 163 released in full and 31 released in part. The U.S./DoS indicated it withheld in full 40 documents it found to be responsive to my FOIA requests. Details of the individual packages of released documents are as follows:

  • • In a package dated April 21, 2004, the U.S./DoS indicated that it had retrieved 101 documents responsive to one of my FOIA requests, but released only 96 of them (82 fully declassified and 14 partially declassified), thus withholding 5 in full.
  • • In a package dated April 27, 2005, the U.S./DoS indicated that it had retrieved 33 documents responsive to one of my FOIA requests, but released only 29 of them (25 fully declassified and 4 partially declassified), thus withholding 4 in full.
  • • In a package dated March 29, 2007, the U.S./DoS indicated that it had retrieved 75 documents responsive to one of my FOIA requests, but released only 44 of them (33 fully declassified and 11 partially declassified), thus withholding 31 in full.
  • • In a package dated July 13, 2007, the U.S./DoS indicated that it had retrieved 25 documents responsive to one of my FOIA requests and released all 25 of them (23 fully declassified and 2 partially declassified).

According to the U.S./DoS, some documents or portions of documents were withheld during these declassification episodes either because they (1) are “in the interest of national defense or foreign relations,” (2) “contain[] exchanges between attorney and client and/or litigation materials prepared by an attorney,” (3) “[are] of such a nature that [their] release would constitute a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy,” or

(4) “consist[] of pre-decisional deliberative process material.”

I also submitted FOIA requests to the U.S./DoD and the U.S./DoJ. Both departments claimed that they possessed no documents responsive to my FOIA requests.

Below is a chart of the declassified documents I received organized as follows:

  • (1) Title/Description: This column indicates the subject of each document. The exact title, if drawn directly from the document, is indicated verbatim within quotation marks. Where the document lacks a title, a general description is provided without quotation marks and in brackets. Note that some documents have general and/or identical subject lines.
  • (2) Title/Description—Shorthand: This column provides a unique number for each document. The order is not chronological by date or topic; it is simply the order in which the documents were entered into this database. I employ this shorthand to refer to documents in this book.
  • (3) Date: This column provides, where it appeared on the document, the date. The date format is year, month, and day (YYYY.MM.DD). In some cases the exact date was not included in a document. In such instances, this column reads “Undated” with either the YYYY.MM in brackets, if known, or nothing appended, if the date is completely unknown.
  • (4) Cable Number: For documents representing cable communications, if the cable number is identifiable, this column provides that number. For all other documents, this column indicates “N/A,” for “not applicable.”
  • (5) Number of Pages: This column indicates the number of pages in each document.
  • (6) Alphanumeric Code: This column indicates the alphanumeric code assigned by the U.S./DoS to each document corresponding to the batches of documents released to me. For example, all documents with an alphanumeric code beginning with “E” were released in a separate grouping from those documents with alphanumeric codes beginning with “L” or “U.” Note that documents pertaining to more than one of the transitional justice episodes may be grouped together with the same letter (E, L, or U) at the beginning of the alphanumeric code.
  • (7) Released in Full/Part: This column indicates the amount of each document the U.S./DoS released to me. If the document was not redacted at all before being released, this column indicates that it was released in “Full.” If, however, the U.S./ DoS decided to redact portions of a document before releasing it, this column indicates “Part” and then provides alphanumeric codes (e.g., B5, 1.4D) the U.S./ DoS offered as an explanation in the process of declassification.

(1)

Title/Description

(2)

Title/

Description— Shorthand

(3)

Date

(4)

Cable

Number

(5)

Number of Pages

(6)

Alphanumeric

Code

(7)

Released in Full/ Part

[U.S. Department of State Office of the Spokesman—Q&A]

Document 1

1994.05.26

N/A

2

L4

Full

“White House Press Guidance: Rwanda”

Document 2

1994.06.13

N/A

1

L5

Full

“L Press Guidance”

Document 3

1994.06.13

N/A

2

L6

Full

“L Press Guidance”

Document 4

1994.06.14

N/A

2

L7

Full

“To Pru Bushnell for Hill Briefing”

Document 5

1994.06.16

N/A

1

L8

Full

[Secretary Christopher’s Appearance before U.S./SCFR]

Document 6

1994.06.30

N/A

2

L10

Full

[UNSC

Resolution—Draft]

Document 7

1994.07.07

N/A

2

L12a

Full

“Human Rights Commission: Special Rapporteur Concludes Genocide Has Occurred in Rwanda”

Document 8

1994.07.15

Geneva 05974

4

L12b

Full

“Rwanda: 19 July Security Council— Rwanda Absent; French Intent on Leaving by August”

Document 9

1995.07.20

USUN New York 002972

1

L15

Full

[State Department Response to Rep. Tony Hall’s 1994.07.01 Letter]

Document 10

1994.07.27

N/A

2

L17

Full

[1994.07.01 Letter from Rep. Tony Hall to Secretary Christopher]

Document 11

1994.07.01

N/A

2

L17b

Full

“Rwanda War Crimes”

Document 12

1994.07.28

State

202027

3

L18

Full

“Human Rights Tribunal—Rwanda”

Document 13

1994.08.01

State

205480

1

L19

Full

“Human Rights Tribunal—Rwanda”

Document 14

1994.08.02

Brussels

08559

1

L20

Full

“Rwanda War Crimes: Tanzania’s Position”

Document 15

1994.08.03

Dar es Salaam

004940

1

L21

Full

[Intra-State Department Memo on Detaining Suspects in Rwanda/ Burundi]

Document 16

1994.08.24

N/A

7

L28

Full

“Rwanda War Crimes Tribunal Demarche to GoT”

Document 17

1994.08.31

Dar es Salaam 005510

1

L33

Full

“USG Interview Trip to Rwanda”

Document 18

1994.09.12

State

246554

1

L35

Full

2 76

(1)

Title/Descript ion

(2)

Title/

Description— Shorthand

(3)

Date

(4)

Cable

Number

(5)

Number ofPages

(6)

Alphanumeric

Code

(7)

Released in Full/ Part

“Rwanda War Crimes”

Document 19

1994.09.23

USUN New York 004014

1

L41

Full

“Resolution Establishing War Crimes Tribunal for Rwanda”

Document 20

1994.09.28

State

262739

1

L42

Full

“Rwanda War Crimes Tribunal—Japanese Views”

Document 21

1994.10.21

USUN New York

004514

1

L45

Full

“Tanzanian Views on War Crimes Tribunal”

Document 22

1994.10.24

Dar es Salaam 006900

1

L49

Full

“Rwanda War Crimes Tribunal”

Document 23

1994.10.27

Kampala

008705

1

L50

Full

“Rwanda War Crimes Tribunal—Meeting of Co-Sponsors”

Document 24

1994.11.04

USUN New York

004749

1

L52

Full

“Rwanda War Crimes Tribunal”

Document 25

1994.11.05

USUN New York

004783

1

L53

Full

“Secretary General Shares Concerns About War Crimes Tribunal, Burundi, Relations with USG”

Document 26

1994.04.29

USUN New York

001794

2

E1

Full

“Daily Press Briefing of Thursday, April 28, 1994

Document 27

1994.04.28

State 112290

30

E2

Full

“International Jurist Comments on Human Rights Inquiry in Rwanda”

Document 28

1994.05.16

Brussels

05416

2

E4

Full

“Under Secretary for Global Affairs Wirth’s Meeting with Director of Operations for ICRC, Jean de Courten, May 17, 1994”

Document 29

1994.05.24

State 137577

4

E5

Full

“Uganda Not Supporting RPF Museveni Tells Danes”

Document 30

1994.06.09

Copenhagen

003075

6

E6

Full

“Rwanda: Bringing the Guilty to Justice”

Document 31

1994.06.15

USUN New York 002491

6

E7

Full

“Press Guidance— Friday, July 1, 1994”

Document 32

1994.07.01

State 177024

6

E8

Full

“Human Rights Violations: Detention of Gatete and Associates”

Document 33

1994.07.07

State 180972

2

E9

Full

(1)

Title/Description

(2)

Title/

Description— Shorthand

(3)

Date

(4)

Cable

Number

(5)

Number of Pages

(6)

Alphanumeric

Code

(7)

Released in Full/ Part

“Africa Bureau Friday Report, 07/8/94”

Document 34

1994.07.09

State 182529

22

E10

Full

“Gatete Departure from Benaco”

Document 35

1994.07.09

State 183627

5

E11

Full

“Gatete”

Document 36

1994.07.11

State 184429

5

E12

Full

“Consultations with France and Others on Rwanda”

Document 37

1994.07.12

State 184612

3

E13

Full

“Next Steps in Addressing War Crimes in Rwanda”

Document 38

1994.07.15

State 188919

2

E16

Full

“Non-Recognition of Interim Government of Rwanda”

Document 39

1994.07.15

State 190358

5

E17

Full

“Rwanda: War Crimes, Non-Recognition, and

APC’s”

Document 40

1994.07.18

Madrid

007615

2

E18

Full

“Rwanda: 18 Jul 94 Security Council Meeting”

Document 41

1994.07.19

USUN New York 02952

3

E19

Full

“Leopoldo Torres Boursault for Rwanda War Crime Tribunal”

Document 42

1994.07.19

Madrid

007697

2

E20

Full

“British Response Muted in Considering Next Steps in Addressing War Crimes in Rwanda”

Document 43

1994.07.19

London

011339

2

E21

Full

“Rwanda War Crimes Tribunal”

Document 44

1994.07.19

State 192051

2

E22

Full

“Press Guidance— Wednesday, July 20,

1994

Document 45

1994.07.20

State 194391

8

E23

Full

“Rwanda: 22 July Security Council Meeting”

Document 46

1994.07.23

State 197812

3

E24

Full

“Rwanda: 22 July Security Council Meeting”

Document 47

1994.07.23

USUN New York 03046

5

E25

Full

“Rwanda War Crimes”

Document 48

1994.07.26

State 198848

5

E27

Full

“Rwanda War Crimes

Tribunal—Russian

Demarche”

Document 49

1994.07.27

USUN New York 003089

3

E28

Full

“Human Rights Tribunal—Rwanda”

Document 50

1994.07.27

Brussels

08330

2

E29

Full

“Rwanda War Crimes Demarche: Minister of Home Affairs Reaction and Pitch for Financial Aid”

Document 51

1994.07.28

Dar es Salaam 004815

5

E30

Full

(1)

Title/Descript ion

(2)

Title/

Description— Shorthand

(3)

Date

(4)

Cable

Number

(5)

Number ofPages

(6)

Alphanumeric

Code

(7)

Released in Full/ Part

“MGRW02: Irish Reaction to President Clinton’s and Aid Administrator Atwood’s Letters on Rwanda”

Document 52

1994.07.29

Dublin

04148

6

E31

Full

“Human Rights Tribunal—Rwanda”

Document 53

1994.07.29

Brussels

08418

2

E32

Full

“South Africa: Goldstone Involvement in Yugoslavia War Crimes Tribunal Should Insure South African Support for Concept”

Document 54

1994.07.29

Pretor

10774

3

E33

Full

“Human Rights Tribunal—Rwanda”

Document 55

1994.07.29

State 202705

2

E34

Full

“MGRWO2: Additional Field Monitors for Rwanda”

Document 56

1994.08.02

Geneva

06703

5

E35

Full

“Press Guidance— August 3, 1994”

Document 57

1994.08.03

State 207687

7

E36

Full

“Rwanda War Crimes”

Document 58

1994.08.03

State 206761

3

E37

Full

“Travel of A/S Shattuck to Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Zaire and France”

Document 59

1994.08.04

State 207893

4

E38

Full

“A/S Shattuck Visit to Rwanda: Objectives”

Document 60

1994.08.05

State 209882

4

E41

Full

“Visit of A/S John Shattuck”

Document 61

1994.08.05

State 210227

3

E42

Full

“Meeting with High Commissioner for Human Rights: Rwanda, Cuba, China, and Other Issues”

Document 62

1994.08.05

Geneva

06844

10

E43

Full

“Talking Points for A/S Moose’s Use with GOF and GOB Officials”

Document 63

1994.08.06

State 211528

5

E45

Full

“AF A/S Moose’s Talking Points for his Meeting with President Mandela”

Document 64

1994.08.06

State 211529

4

E46

Full

“Visit to Kenya of A/S Shattuck”

Document 65

1994.08.08

Nairob

14073

2

E47

Full

“Press Guidance— August 8, 1994”

Document 66

1994.08.08

State 212243

8

E50

Full

“Press Guidance— August 9, 1994”

Document 67

1994.08.09

State 213680

4

E52

Full

“Interim Trip Report— Kigali and Goma”

Document 68

1994.08.09

Kampala

006337

5

E54

Full

“Official—Informal”

Document 69

1994.08.10

State 215074

3

E58

Full

(1)

Title/Description

(2)

Title/

Description— Shorthand

(3)

Date

(4)

Cable

Number

(5)

Number of Pages

(6)

Alphanumeric

Code

(7)

Released in Full/ Part

“Rwanda: SC Statement Issued August 10”

Document 70

1994.08.11

USUN New York 003310

6

E62

Full

“A/S Shattuck Urges Support for War Crimes Tribunal”

Document 71

1994.08.11

Kampala

006441

6

E63

Full

“A/S Shattuck’s Meeting with French on Rwanda War Crimes Tribunal and Burundi”

Document 72

1994.08.12

Paris 22245

10

E64

Full

“DRL/MLA Director Rosenblatt’s Meeting with Belgian Official on Rwanda Tribunal and Monitors”

Document 73

1994.08.13

Paris 22398

4

E66

Full

“Demarche to Russian MFA on UN War Crimes Tribunal for Rwanda”

Document 74

1994.08.15

Moscow

023223

1

E69

Full

“Rwanda: Pending Meetings in Geneva with Ayala Lasso and the Commission of Experts”

Document 75

1994.08.17

State 221084

5

E70

Full

“Rwanda: Initial Meeting with Commission of High Experts”

Document 76

1994.08.18

Geneva 07233

4

E71

Full

“Rwanda—Crimes Tribunal—Meeting with UN Legal Counsel”

Document 77

1994.08.19

USUN New York

003437

4

E72

Full

“Establishment of UN War Crimes Tribunal for Rwanda”

Document 78

1994.08.20

State 224856

7

E74

Full

“Establishment of UN War Crimes Tribunal for Rwanda”

Document 79

1994.08.20

State 224672

2

E75

Full

“Demarche for International Tribunal in Rwanda”

Document 80

1994.08.24

State 228408

4

E77

Full

“Rwanda War Crimes Tribunal UN Sect. Views”

Document 81

1994.08.24

USUN New York

003495

2

E78

Full

“UN War Crimes Tribunal for Rwanda: Russia Position”

Document 82

1994.08.25

Moscow

24407

4

E79

Full

“Assistant Secretary Moose’s Discussions with Belgian Foreign Minister on Rwanda, Burundi, Zaire”

Document 83

1994.08.25

Brussels

09371

18

E80

Full

(1)

Title/Descript ion

(2)

Title/

Description— Shorthand

(3)

Date

(4)

Cable

Number

(5)

Number ofPages

(6)

Alphanumeric

Code

(7)

Released in Full/ Part

“Establishment of a War Crimes Tribunal for Rwanda: Dutch Views”

Document 84

1994.08.30

State 234040

3

E82

Full

“War Crimes Tribunal for Rwanda”

Document 85

1994.08.30

USUN New York

003594

1

E83

Full

“Resolution Establishing War Crimes Tribunal for Rwanda”

Document 86

1994.09.12

State 237220

11

E86

Full

“Visit by UN Commission of Experts;

Recommendation for U.S. Assistance”

Document 87

1994.09.07

Kigali

001509

3

E88

Full

“Presidential Mission Returns from Central Africa; Recommendations Track Closely with U.S.G. Policy”

Document 88

1994.09.09

State 243592

6

E90

Full

“Official—Informal”

Document 89

1994.09.12

State 245815

4

E92

Full

“UN War Crimes Prosecutions for Rwanda”

Document 90

1994.09.16

State 251046

5

E93

Full

“French Perspective on Rwanda War Crimes Tribunal”

Document 91

1994.09.19

Paris 25531

3

E95

Full

“UN Human Rights Program in Rwanda”

Document 92

1994.09.21

State 256438

4

E98

Full

“Official—Informal”

Document 93

1994.09.23

State 259321

5

E100

Full

“Press Guidance— September 23, 1994”

Document 94

1994.09.24

State 259570

9

E101

Full

“Press Guidance— September 26, 1994”

Document 95

1994.09.26

State 260743

6

E102

Full

“Meeting with High Commissioner for Human Rights:

Burma, Rwanda, Cuba”

Document 96

1994.09.27

Geneva

008272

6

E104

Full

“Meeting with High Commissioner for Human Rights:

Burma, Rwanda, Cuba”

Document 97

1994.09.27

Geneva

008273

6

E105

Full

“Press Guidance— September 27, 1994”

Document 98

1994.09.27

State 261704

6

E106

Full

“French Confirm Concurrence on Rwanda War Crimes Tribunal”

Document 99

1994.09.29

Paris 26809

1

E107

Full

(1)

Title/Description

(2)

Title/

Description— Shorthand

(3)

Date

(4)

Cable

Number

(5)

Number of Pages

(6)

Alphanumeric

Code

(7)

Released in Full/ Part

“Resolution Establishing War Crimes Tribunal for Rwanda”

Document 100

1994.10.15

State

280506

3

E121

Full

“Rwanda War Crimes”

Document 101

1994.10.19

State 283000

4

E122

Full

“Rwandan Position on Rwanda War Crimes Tribunal”

Document 102

1994.10.19

Kigali

001872

3

E125

Full

“Rwandan Views on War Crimes Tribunal”

Document 103

1994.10.20

USUN New York

004459

8

E126

Full

“Follow-Up Demarches on Rwanda War Crimes Tribunal Resolution: Prime Minister and Justice Minister”

Document 104

1994.10.20

Kigali

001883

5

E127

Full

“Points on Rwanda for

UNSYG”

Document 105

1994.10.21

State 285608

2

E128

Full

“Rwanda War Crimes”

Document 106

1994.10.21

State 286662

3

E130

Full

“Rwanda War Crimes”

Document 107

1994.10.22

Kinshasa

06331

1

E131

Full

“Rwanda War Crimes Tribunal: Zero Hour”

Document 108

1994.10.22

State 286781

2

E133

Full

“Has Genocide Occurred in Rwanda?”

Document 109

1994.05.21

N/A

4

L3

Part B1, 1.4D, B5

“Establishment of UN War Crimes Tribunal for Rwanda”

Document 110

1994.08.14

State 218325

1

L25

Part B1, 1.4B, 1.4D, B6

“War Crines [sic] Tribunal For Rwanda”

Document 111

1994.08.30

USUN New York 003604

1

L32

Part B1, 1.4B, 1.4D

“UN Human Rights Program in Rwanda— Getting It All Together”

Document 112

1994.09.17

Geneva

008006

4

L37

Part B6

“Consultations with France on Rwanda War Crimes Issue”

Document 113

1994.07.13

Paris 19216

4

E14

Part B1, 1.4D

“SC Discussion of Rwanda, 4 Aug 94”

Document 114

1994.08.04

USUN New York 03228

5

E39

Part B1, 1.4D

“Rwanda War Crimes”

Document 115

1994.08.05

USUN New York

03237

5

E44

Part B1, 1.4D

“MGRW02: A/S Moose Briefs Quai on Rwanda Trip”

Document 116

1994.08.08

Paris 21685

13

E48

Part B1, 1.4D

“Rwanda War Crimes”

Document 117

1994.08.09

USUN New York 003281

5

E51

Part B1, 1.4B, 1.4D

(1)

Title/Descript ion

(2)

Title/

Description— Shorthand

(3)

Date

(4)

Cable

Number

(5)

Number ofPages

(6)

Alphanumeric

Code

(7)

Released in Full/ Part

“International Tribunal on Rwanda: Further Thoughts”

Document 118

1994.08.09

Bujumb

02676

10

E53

Part B5, B1, 1.4D

“Official—Informal”

Document 119

1994.08.11

London

12721

6

E61

Part B1, 1.4B, 1.4D

“A/S Shattuck’s Discussion on the Proposed Rwanda War Crimes Tribunal with

HMG”

Document 120

1994.08.15

London

012901

6

E68

Part B1, 1.4B, 1.4D

“Official—Informal”

Document 121

1994.09.03

State 238830

6

E87

Part B1, 1.4D

“UN War Crimes Prosecutions for Rwanda”

Document 122

1994.09.19

Moscow

026935

3

E94

Part B1, 1.4D

“A/S Shattuck Discussions with Secretariat, ICRC, and Missions Regarding Haiti, Rwanda, Burundi, China, Turkey, and Funding for UN Human Rights Activities”

Document 123

1994.09.29

USUN New York 004101

13

E108

Part B1, 1.4D

“Resolution and Statute Establishing War Crimes Tribunal for Rwanda”

Document 124

1994.09.30

USUN New York 004112

2

E110

Part B1, 1.4B, 1.4D

“Official—Informal”

Document 125

1994.10.19

State 282985

7

E124

Part B5, B1, 1.4D

“Arria Style Meeting with President of Sierra Leone”

Document 126

1996.10.07

N/A

2

U1

Part B5

“Sierra Leone: Security Council Informals October 30”

Document 127

1996.10.29

N/A

2

U2

Part B5, B1, 1.4D

“Sierra Leone: Security Council Consultations, July 8, 5:00 p.m.”

Document 128

1999.07.08

N/A

2

U18

Full

“U.S. Position Paper on Sierra Leone Amnesty”

Document 129

1999.07.16

N/A

2

U19

Full

“Sierra Leone: Security Council Consultations, August 4, 10:30 a.m.”

Document 130

1999.08.03

N/A

3

U20

Full

“Trip Report—Sierra Leone”

Document 131

1999.08.04

N/A

6

U21

Full

“Sierra Leone: Steps to Reinvigorate the Peace Process”

Document 132

Undated

N/A

6

U23a

Full

(1)

Title/Description

(2)

Title/

Description— Shorthand

(3)

Date

(4)

Cable

Number

(5)

Number of Pages

(6)

Alphanumeric

Code

(7)

Released in Full/ Part

“Sierra Leone: What Is to be Done”

Document 133

Undated

N/A

3

U24a

Full

“Sierra Leone Tribunal”

Document 134

2000.06.08

N/A

3

U28

Part B5, B6

[UNSC

Resolution—Draft]

Document 135

Undated

N/A

2

U28a

Full

“Sierra Leone Tribunal”

Document 136

2000.06.09

N/A

1

U29

Part B5

“FW: The Lockerbie Trial—For Possible Consideration in the Sierra Leone Context”

Document 137

2000.06.12

N/A

1

U33

Part B5

“Sierra Leone Accountability Latest Version”

Document 138

2000.06.19

N/A

1

U33

Part B5, B6

[UNSC Role in SCSL]

Document 139

Undated

N/A

5

U33a

B5, B6

“Sierra Leone: Security Council Private Meetings with ECOWAS Foreign Ministers, UNSC Formal Chamber,

June 21, 10:00 a.m.”

Document 140

2000.06.20

N/A

3

U34

Full

“A Special Court for Sierra Leone: the Facts on the Ground ”

Document 141

2000.06.26

N/A

8

U35

Part B1, 1.4B, 1.4D. B5

“Sierra Leone Resolution”

Document 142

2000.06.29

N/A

2

U38

B5, B6

“Other Matters/

Sierra Leone: Security Council Consultations, July 5, 4:30 p.m.”

Document 143

2000.07.05

N/A

3

U40

Full

“U.N. Security Council Resolution for a Special Court for Sierra Leone”

Document 144

2000.06.29

N/A

3

U40a

Full

“Terms of Reference”

Document 145

2000.06.29

N/A

1

U40b

Full

[Dan Feldman— Pierre Prosper Correspondence]

Document 146

2000.07.13

N/A

1

U42

Full

“Sierra Leone Special Court”

Document 147

2000.07.13

N/A

2

U43

Part B5

“U.N. Security Council Resolution

Document 148

2000.06.29

N/A

3

U43a

Full

for a Special Court for Sierra Leone”

“Terms of Reference”

Document 149

2000.06.29

N/A

1

U43b

Full

“U.N. Security Council Resolution for a Special Court for Sierra Leone”

Document 150

2000.07.12

N/A

2

U43c

Full

(1)

Title/Descript ion

(2)

Title/

Description— Shorthand

(3)

Date

(4)

Cable

Number

(5)

Number ofPages

(6)

Alphanumeric

Code

(7)

Released in Full/ Part

“[Terms of Reference]”

Document 151

2000.07.12

N/A

2

U43d

Full

“Concept Paper on a Special Court for Sierra Leone”

Document 152

2000.07.20

N/A

3

U48

Full

“Sierra Leone: Security Council Consultations, July 27, 9:45 a.m.”

Document 153

2000.07.26

N/A

4

U51

Full

“Draft Resolution on a Special Court for Sierra Leone”

Document 154

2000.07.25

N/A

3

U51a

Full

“Sierra Leone: Security Council Consultations, August 10, 10:00 a.m.”

Document 155

2000.08.09

N/A

4

U54

Full

“UN Security Council Resolution for a special court for Sierra Leone”

Document 156

2000.08.09

N/A

3

U54a

Full

“OP3, option 1 (preferred language)”

Document 157

Undated

N/A

1

U54b

Full

“Sierra Leone Special Court”

Document 158

2000.10.04

N/A

1

U59

Full

“Talking Points”

Document 159

Undated

N/A

1

U59a

Full

“Financing of Sierra Leone Court”

Document 160

2000.10.27

N/A

1

U62

Full

“Instructions on U.S. Negotiation of Sierra Leone Independent Special Court”

Document 161

Undated

N/A

2

U69a

Full

“Letter to the SYG”

Document 162

2000.11.13

N/A

1

U71b

Full

“Sierra Leone Tribunal”

Document 163

2000.11.16

N/A

1

U73

Full

“Talking Points”

Document 164

Undated

N/A

1

U73a

Full

“Financing of Sierra Leone Court”

Document 165

2000.11.17

N/A

2

U74

Part B5, B6

“Your Scheduled 11/29 Telephone Discussion with Ken Roth, Human Rights Watch, 9:00 am”

Document 166

2000.11.28

N/A

4

U75

Full

[HRW Letter to Greenstock]

Document 167

2000.10.04

N/A

5

U75a

Full

[HRW Letter to UNSC]

Document 168

2000.10.31

N/A

2

U75b

Full

“Sierra Leone Special Court in the Security Council, November 8, 10:30 a.m., Informal Chamber”

Document 169

2001.11.07

N/A

4

U84

Full

“Sierra Leone: The US/ GOSL Special Court Concept”

Document 170

Undated

N/A

3

L01

Full

(1)

Title/Description

(2)

Title/

Description— Shorthand

(3)

Date

(4)

Cable

Number

(5)

Number of Pages

(6)

Alphanumeric

Code

(7)

Released in Full/ Part

[U.S. Investigation and Prosecution in the FRY]

Document 171

Undated

N/A

19

L02

Full

“Letter Dated March 1993 from the Permanent Representative of the Untied States to the United Nations Addressed to the Secretary General”

Document 172

Undated

[March

1993]

N/A

1

L03

Full

“Creation of an International Tribunal for Violations of International Humanitarian Law in the Former Yugoslavia”

Document 173

Undated

N/A

2

L03a

Full

“Draft Charter of the International Tribunal for Violations of International Humanitarian Law in the Former Yugoslavia”

Document 174

1993.03.02

N/A

12

L03b

Part B3, CIA-PO

“Establishment of a War Crimes Commission for the Former Yugoslavia”

Document 175

1992.08.31

N/A

6

L04

Full

“Supporting the Establishment of a War Crimes Commission for Yugoslavia”

Document 176

1992.08.31

N/A

4

L05

Full

“War Crimes: Distinction Between Yugoslavia and Iraq”

Document 177

1992.09.08

N/A

2

L06

Full

[Presidential Announcement on the FRY]

Document 178

1992.09.15

N/A

1

L07

Full

“Background: 1943 UN War Crime Commission”

Document 179

Undated

N/A

14

L07a

Full

“Abrams Testimony to Helsinki Commission”

Document 180

1992.09.21

N/A

1

L07b

Full

“Update on War Crimes Commission and International Criminal Court Issues”

Document 181

1992.09.25

N/A

4

L08

Full

“Testimony of Warren Zimmerman”

Document 182

1992.10.22

N/A

4

L09

Full

“War Crimes Commission—Next Steps”

Document 183

1992.11.02

N/A

2

L09a

Full

(1)

Title/Descript ion

(2)

Title/

Description— Shorthand

(3)

Date

(4)

Cable

Number

(5)

Number ofPages

(6)

Alphanumeric

Code

(7)

Released in Full/ Part

“ICFY Ministerial: Accusing Individuals as War Criminals”

Document 184

1992.12.11

N/A

18

L10

Full

“Establishment of an International Criminal Court”

Document 185

1993.01.12

N/A

3

L11

Full

“International Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia”

Document 186

1993.04.22

N/A

9

L12

Full

“War Crimes”

Document 187

1993.04.23

N/A

1

L12a

Full

“War

Crimes: Yugoslavia”

Document 188

1993.04.23

N/A

1

L12b

Full

“Background Paper: War Crimes Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia”

Document 189

1993.05.04

N/A

3

L13

Full

“Q and As:

International Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia”

Document 190

Undated

N/A

5

L13a

Full

“U.S. Response to Secretary General’s War Crimes Reports”

Document 191

1993.05.07

N/A

1

L14

Full

“Letter Dated May 1993 from the Permanent Representative of the United States of Americ to the United Nations Addressed to the Secretary General”

Document 192

a

Undated

[1993.05]

N/A

9

L14a

Full

“Special Court for Sierra Leone”

Document 193

2000.11.30

N/A

2

L19

Full

“Sierra Leone: The US/ GOSL Special Court”

Document 194

2001.02.08

N/A

2

L20

Full

II. Secondary Sources

A. TRANSITIONAL JUSTICE AND RELATED HUMAN RIGHTS ISSUES[4]

  • Accountability for Collective Wrongdoing (Tracy Isaacs & Richard Vernon eds., 2011).
  • • Kenneth Anderson, Who Owns the Rules of War?, N.Y. Times Mag., Apr. 13,
  • 2003, at 38.
  • Timothy Garton Ash, The File: A Personal History (1997).
  • • Timothy Garton Ash, The Truth about Dictatorship, N.Y. Rev. Books, Feb .19, 1998, at 35 (reviewing Transitional Justice: How Emerging Democracies Reckon with Former Regimes: Volume II: Country Studies (Neil J. Kritz ed., 1995), Transitional Justice: How Emerging Democracies Reckon with Former Regimes: Volume III: Laws, Rulings, and Reports (Neil J. Kritz ed., 1995), Gesine Schwan, Politik und Schuld: Die zerstorerische Macht des Schweigens [Politics and Guilt: The Destructive Power of Staying Silent] (1997), Die Engquete-Kommission “Aufarbeitung von Geschichte und Folgen der SED- Diktatur in Deutschland” im Deutschen Bundestag [Inquiry commission in the German Bundestag (for the) “Treatment of the Past and Consequences of the SED-Dictatorship in Germany”], Spor o PRL [The Controversy about the Polish People’s Republic]).
  • Atrocities and International Accountability: Beyond Transitional Justice (Edel Huges et al. eds., 2007).
  • Elazar Barkan, The Guilt of Nations: Restitution and Negotiating Historical Injustices (2000).
  • • M. Cherif Bassiouni, Appraising UN Justice-Related Fact-Finding Missions, 5 Wash.

U. J.L. & Pol’y 35 (2001).

  • M. Cherif Bassiouni, Crimes Against Humanity in International Criminal Law (1992).
  • • Lynn Berat & Yossi Shain, Retribution or Truth-Telling in South Africa? Legacies of the Transitional Phase, 20 Law & Soc. Inquiry 163 (1995).
  • Bill Berkeley, The Graves Are Not Yet Full: Race, Tribe, and Power in the Heart of Africa (2001).
  • Annie R. Bird, US Foreign Policy on Transitional Justice (2015).
  • Alison Bisset, Truth Commissions and Criminal Courts (2012).
  • • Reed Brody, Justice: The First Casualty of Truth?, Nation, Apr. 30, 2001, at 25 (reviewing Truth v. Justice: The Morality of Truth Commissions (Robert

I. Rothberg & Dennis Thompson eds., 2000), Priscilla B. Hayner, Unspeakable Truths: Confronting State Terror and Atrocity (1st ed. 2000), Ruti G. Teitel, Transitional Justice (2000), Richard J. Goldstone, For Humanity: Reflections of a War Crimes Investigator (2000)).

  • • Jonathan I. Charney, International Criminal Law and the Role of Domestic Courts, 95 Am. J. Int’l L. 197 (2001).
  • • Phil Clark, Zachary D. Kaufman & Kalypso Nicolaidis, Tensions in Transitional Justice, in After Genocide: Transitional Justice, Post-conflict Reconstruction, and Reconciliation in Rwanda and Beyond 381 (Phil Clark & Zachary D. Kaufman eds., 2009).
  • • Stanley Cohen, State Crimes of Previous Regimes: Knowledge, Accountability, and the Policing of the Past, 20 Law & Soc. Inquiry 7 (1995).
  • Robert F. Drinan, The Mobilization of Shame: A World View of Human Rights (2001).
  • Jon Elster, Closing the Books: Transitional Justice in Historical Perspective (2004).
  • Evaluating Transitional Justice: Accountability and Peacebuilding in Post-conflict Sierra Leone (Kirsten Ainley et al. eds., 2015).
  • Globalizing Transitional Justice (Ruti Teitel ed., 2014).
  • • Luc Huyse, Justice After Transition: On the Choices Successor Elites Make in Dealing with the Past, 20 Law & Soc. Inquiry 51 (1995).
  • Impunity and Human Rights in International Law and Practice (Naomi Roht-Arriaza ed., 1995).
  • • Zachary D. Kaufman, The Future of Transitional Justice, 1 St. Antony’s Int’l Rev. 58 (2005).
  • Bronwyn Leebaw, Judging State-Sponsored Violence, Imagining Political Change (2011)
  • Raphael Lemkin, Axis Rule in Occupied Europe: Laws of Occupation, Analysis of Government, Proposals for Redress (1944).
  • Jaime Malamud-Got, Game Without End: State Terror and the Politics of Justice (1996).
  • Mahmood Mamdani, When Victims Become Killers: Colonialism, Nativism, and the Genocide in Rwanda (2001).
  • Martha Minow, Between Vengeance and Forgiveness: Facing History After Genocide and Mass Violence (1998).
  • Martha Minow, Breaking the Cycles of Hatred: Memory, Law, and Repair (Nancy L. Rosenbaum ed., 2002).
  • • Madeleine H. Morris, The Trial of Concurrent Jurisdiction: The Case of Rwanda, 7 Duke J. Comp. & Int’l L. 349 (1997).
  • • Daryl A. Mundis, New Mechanisms for the Enforcement of International Humanitarian Law, 95 Am. J. Int’l L. 934 (2001).
  • My Neighbor, My Enemy: Justice and Community in the Aftermath of Mass Atrocity (Eric Stover & Harvey Weinstein eds., 2004).
  • • Aryeh Neier, The Quest for Justice, N.Y. Rev. Books, Mar. 8, 2001, at 31 (reviewing Alex Boraine, A Country Unmasked (2000), Priscilla B. Hayner, Unspeakable Truths: Confronting State Terror and Atrocity (2000), Gary Jonathan Bass, Stay the Hand of Vengeance: The Politics of War Crimes Tribunals (2000), Geoffrey Robertson, Crimes Against Humanity: The Struggle for Global Justice (2000), Independent International Commission on Kosovo, Kosovo Report: Conflict, International Response, Lessons Learned (2000), Richard

J. Goldstone, For Humanity: Reflections of a War Crimes Investigator (2000)).

  • Aryeh Neier, War Crimes: Brutality, Genocide, Terror, and the Struggle for Justice (1998).
  • Elizabeth Neuffer, The Key to My Neighbor’s House: Seeking Justice in Bosnia and Rwanda (2001).
  • Carol Off, The Lion, The Fox and the Eagle: A Story of Generals and Justice in Yugoslavia and Rwanda (2000).
  • • Diane F. Orentlicher, Settling Accounts: The Duty to Prosecute Human Rights Violations of a Prior Regime, 100 Yale L.J. 2537 (1991).
  • • Michelle Parlevliet, Considering Truth: Dealing with a Legacy of Gross Human Rights Violations, 16 Neth. Q. Hum. Rts. 141 (1998).
  • • Jelena Pejic, The Tribunal and the ICC: Do Precedents Matter?, 60 Alb. L. Rev. 841 (1997).
  • • Chris Maina Peter, The International Criminal Tribunal: Bringing the Killers to Book, 1997 Int’l Rev. Red Cross 695.
  • Responding to Genocide: The Politics of International Action (Adam Lupel & Ernesto Verdeja eds., 2013).
  • Restorative Justice, Reconciliation, and Peacebuilding (Jennifer J. Llewellyn & Daniel Philpott eds., 2014).
  • Andrew Rigby, Justice and Reconciliation: After the Violence (2001).
  • Geoffrey Robertson, Crimes Against Humanity: The Struggle for Global Justice (rev. ed. 2006).
  • Rwanda and South Africa in Dialogue: Addressing the Legacies of Genocide and a Crime Against Humanity (Charles Villa-Vicencio & Tyrone Savage eds., 2001).
  • • William A. Schabas, Conjoined Twins of Transitional Justice? The Sierra Leone Truth and Reconciliation Commission and the Special Court, 2 J. Int’l Crim. Just. 1082 (2004).
  • • William A. Schabas, National Courts Finally Begin to Prosecute Genocide, the “Crime of Crimes’,’ 1 J. Int’l Crim. Just. 39 (2003).
  • • William A. Schabas, The Relationship Between Truth Commissions and International Courts: The Case of Sierra Leone, 25 Hum. Rts. Q. 1035 (2003).
  • • David J. Scheffer, The Future of Atrocity Law, 25 Suffolk Transnat’l L. Rev. 389 (2002).
  • • David J. Scheffer, International Judicial Intervention, Foreign Pol’y, Spring 1996, at 34.
  • William Shawcross, Justice and the Enemy: Nuremberg, 9/11, and the Trial of Khalid Sheikh Mohammed (2011).
  • • Richard Lewis Siegel, Transitional Justice: A Decade of Debate and Experience,
  • 20 Hum. Rts. Q. 431 (1998) (reviewing Timothy Garton Ash, The

File: A Personal History (1998), Alison Brysk, The Politics of Human Rights in Argentina: Protest, Change, and Democratization (1994), Transitional Justice: How Emerging Democracies Reckon with Former Regimes: Volume II: Country Studies (Neil J. Kritz ed., 1995), Transitional Justice: How Emerging Democracies Reckon with Former Regimes: Volume III: Laws, Rulings, and Reports (Neil J. Kritz ed., 1995), Jaime Malamud- Goti, Game Without End: State Terror and the Politics of Justice (1996), Tina Rosenberg, The Haunted Land: Facing Europe’s Ghosts After Communism (1995), Transition to Democracy in Latin America: The Role of the Judiciary (Irwin P. Stotzky ed., 1993), Lawrence Weschler, A Miracle,

A Universe: Settling Accounts with Torturers (1990)).

  • Kathryn Sikkink, The Justice Cascade: How Human Rights Prosecutions Are Changing World Politics (2011).
  • • Jack Snyder & Leslie Vinjamuri, Trials and Errors: Principles and Pragmatism in Strategies of International Justice, Int’l Sec., Winter 2003/2004, at 5.
  • • Symposium, Accountability for International Crimes and Serious Violations of Fundamental Human Rights, 59 Law & Contemp. Probs. (1996).
  • • Symposium, Justice in Cataclysm, Duke J. Comp. & Int’l L. 319 (1997).
  • • Ruti G. Teitel, The Law and Politics of Contemporary Transitional Justice, 38 Cornell Int’l L.J. 837 (2005).
  • Ruti G. Teitel, Transitional Justice (2000).
  • • Ruti G. Teitel, Transitional Justice Genealogy, 16 Harv. Hum. Rts. J. 69 (2003).
  • • Ruti G. Teitel, Transitional Justice: The Role of Law in Political Transformations, 106 Yale L.J. 2009 (1997).
  • Transition to Democracy in Latin America: The Role of the Judiciary (Irwin P. Stotzky ed., 1993).
  • Transitional Justice: How Emerging Democracies Reckon with Former Regimes. Volume I: General Considerations (Neil Kritz ed., 1995).
  • Transitional Justice: How Emerging Democracies Reckon with Former Regimes. Volume II: Country Studies (Neil Kritz ed., 1995).
  • Transitional Justice: How Emerging Democracies Reckon with Former Regimes. Volume III: Laws, Rulings, and Reports (Neil Kritz ed., 1995).
  • Transitional Justice and the Rule of Law in New Democracies (James A. McAdams ed., 1997).
  • Transitional Justice in the Twenty-First Century: Beyond Truth Versus Justice (Naomi Roht-Arriaza & Javier Mariezcurrena eds., 2006).
  • Truth Commissions and Courts: The Tension Between Criminal Justice and the Search for Truth (William A. Schabas & Shane Darcy eds., 2005).
  • Lawrence Weschler, A Miracle, A Universe: Settling Accounts with Torturers (1990).
  • • Leila Sadat Wexler, Reflections on the Trial of Vichy Collaborator Paul Touvier for Crimes Against Humanity in France, 20 Law & Soc. Inquiry 191 (1995).
  • When Sorry Isn’t Enough: The Controversy over Apologies and Reparations for Human Injustice (Roy L. Brooks ed., 1999).
  • • Jose Zalaquett, Balancing Ethical Imperatives and Political Constraints: The Dilemma of New Democracies Confronting Past Human Rights Violations, 43 Hastings L.J. 1425
  • (1992).

B. MULTIPLE ATROCITIES

  • Alex J. Bellamy, Massacres and Morality: Mass Atrocities in an Age of Civilian Immunity (2012).
  • Century of Genocide: Critical Essays and Eyewitness Accounts (Samuel Totten et al. eds., 4th ed. 2012).
  • Don Cheadle & John Prendergast, Not on Our Watch: The Mission to End Genocide in Darfur and Beyond (2007).
  • • Jared Cohen & Zachary D. Kaufman, Op-Ed., A Genocide by Any Other

Name: Debating Genocide in Rwanda and Sudan, Broward Times, July 15, 2006, at 6.

  • Crimes of War 2.0: What the Public Should Know (Roy Gutman et al. eds., 2d ed. 2007).
  • Peter Du Preez, Genocide: The Psychology of Mass Murder (1994).
  • Encyclopedia of Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity (Dinah L. Shelton ed., 2005).
  • Genocide: Conceptual and Historical Dimensions (George J. Andreopoulos

ed., 1994).

  • Daniel Jonah Goldhagen, Worse than War: Genocide, Eliminationism, and the Ongoing Assault on Humanity (2009).
  • Donald L. Horowitz, Ethnic Groups in Conflict (1985).
  • Adam LeBor, “Complicity with Evil”: The United Nations in the Age of Modern Genocide (2006).
  • The New Killing Fields: Massacre and the Politics of Intervention (Nicolaus Mills & Kira Brunner eds., 2002).
  • William A. Schabas, Genocide in International Law: The Crime of Crimes (2d ed. 2009).
  • William A. Schabas, War Crimes and Human Rights: Essays on the Death Penalty, Justice, and Accountability (2008).
  • Social Entrepreneurship in the Age of Atrocities: Changing Our World (Zachary D. Kaufman ed., 2012).
  • Ervin Straub, The Roots of Evil: The Origins of Genocide and Other Group Violence (1989).
  • Benjamin A. Valentino, Final Solutions: Mass Killing and Genocide in the 20th Century (2004).

C. MULTIPLE WAR CRIMES TRIBUNALS

  • • Payam Akhavan, Beyond Impunity: Can International Criminal Justice Prevent Future Atrocities?, 95 Am. J. Int’l L. 7 (2001).
  • • Payam Akhavan, Book Reviews and Notes, 93 Am. J. Int’l L. 253 (1999) (reviewing Steven R. Ratner & Jason S. Abrams, Accountability for Human Rights Atrocities in International Law: Beyond the Nuremberg Legacy (1st ed.
  • 1997)).
  • Atrocities on Trial: Historical Perspectives on the Politics of Prosecuting War Crimes (Patricia Heberer & Jurgen Matthaus eds., 2008).
  • Howard Ball, Prosecuting War Crimes and Genocide: The Twentieth Century Experience (1999).
  • • Gary Jonathan Bass, Atrocity & Legalism, Daedalus 73 (2003).
  • Gary Jonathan Bass, Stay the Hand of Vengeance: The Politics of War Crimes Tribunals (2000).
  • Yves Beigbeder, Judging War Criminals: The Politics of International Justice (1999).
  • • Graham T. Blewitt, Ad Hoc Tribunals Half a Century After Nuremberg, 149 Mil.

L. Rev. 101 (1995).

  • • John R. Bolton, The Global Prosecutors: Hunting War Criminals in the Name of Utopia, Foreign Aff., Jan.-Feb. 1999, at 157 (reviewing Aryeh Neier, War Crimes: Brutality, Genocide, Terror and the Struggle for Justice (1998), Martha Minow, Between Vengeance and Forgiveness: Facing History After Genocide and Mass Violence (1998)).
  • • Thomas Burgenthal, Proliferation of International Courts and Tribunals: Is It Good or Bad?, 14 Leiden J. In’l L. 267 (2001).
  • • Jonathan G. Cedarbaum, Restrictions on U.S. Attorneys, Practicing before International Criminal Tribunals, 98 Am. J. Int’l L. 141 (2004).
  • • Jonathan I. Charney, Is International Law Threatened by Multiple International Tribunals?, Recueil des Cours, 1998, at 101.
  • • Helena Cobban, International Courts, Foreign Pol’y, Mar.-Apr. 2006, at 22.
  • • Robert Cryer, Human Rights and the Question of International Criminal Courts and Tribunals, in International Intervention in the Post-Cold War World: Moral Responsibility and Power Politics (Michael C. Davis et al. eds., 2004).
  • Richard J. Goldstone, For Humanity: Reflections of a War Crimes Investigator (2000).
  • • Gilbert Guillaume, Advantages and Risks of Proliferation: A Blueprint for Action, 2 J. Int’l Crim. Just. 300 (2004).
  • The Hidden Histories of War Crimes Trials (Kevin Jon Heller & Gerry Simpson eds., 2013).
  • • Zachary D. Kaufman, The Nuremberg Tribunal v. The Tokyo Tribunal: Designs, Staffs, and Operations, 43 J. Marshall L. Rev. 753 (2010).
  • • Zachary D. Kaufman, Steven D. Roper & Lilian A. Barrias Designing Criminal Tribunals: Sovereignty and International Concerns in the Protection of Human Rights, 10 Yale Hum. Rts. & Dev. L.J. 209, 213 (2007) (book review).
  • • Joanne Lee & Richard Price, International Tribunals and the Criminalization of International Violence, in The United Nations and Global Security (Richard

M. Price & Mark W. Zacher eds., 2004).

  • • Juan E. Mendez, Accountability for Past Abuses, 19 Hum. Rts. Q. 255 (1997).
  • • Theodor Meron, From Nuremberg to the Hague, 149 Mil. L. Rev. 107 (1995).
  • • Theodor Meron, International Criminalization of Internal Atrocities, 89 Am. J. Int’l L.
  • 554 (1995).
  • Kingsley Chiedu Moghalu, Global Justice: The Politics of War Crimes Trials (2008).
  • • Alan Nissel, Yuval Shany’s The Competing Jurisdictions of International Courts and Tribunals, 3 J. Int’l Crim. Just. 525 (book review).
  • • W. Hays Parks, A Few Tools in the Prosecution of War Crimes, Mil. L. Rev., Summer 1995, at 73.
  • • Victor Peskin, Beyond Victor’s Justice? The Challenge of Prosecuting the Victors at the International Criminal Tribunals for the Former Yugoslavia and Rwanda, 4 J. Hum. Rts. 213 (2005).
  • Victor Peskin, International Justice in Rwanda and the Balkans: Virtual Trials and the Struggle for State Cooperation (2008).
  • • Fausto Pocar, The Proliferation of International Criminal Courts and

Tribunals: A Necessity in the Current International Community, 2 J. Int’l Crim. Just.

  • 304 (2004).
  • • Amy Powell, Three Angry Men: Juries in International Criminal Adjudication, 79 N.Y.U. L. Rev 2341 (2004).
  • Steven R. Ratner et al., Accountability for Human Rights Atrocities in International Law: Beyond the Nuremberg Legacy (3d ed. 2009).
  • Steven D. Roper & Lilian A. Barria, Designing Criminal

Tribunals: Sovereignty and International Concerns in the Protection of Human Rights (2006).

  • • Christopher Rudolph, Constructing an Atrocities Regime: The Politics of War Crimes Tribunals, 55 Int’l Org. 655 (2001).
  • William Schabas, The UN International Criminal Tribunals: The Former Yugoslavia, Rwanda, and Sierra Leone (2006).
  • William Schabas, Unimaginable Atrocities: Justice, Politics, and Rights at the War Crimes Tribunals (2014).
  • David Scheffer, All the Missing Souls: A Personal History of the War Crimes Tribunals (2012).
  • Yuval Shany, The Competing Jurisdictions of International Courts and Tribunals (2003).
  • Charles Anthony Smith, The Rise and Fall of War Crimes Trials: From Charles I to Bush II (2012).
  • • Symposium, The Fifth Annual Ernst C. Steifel Symposium: 1945-1995: Critical Perspectives on the Nuremberg Trials and State Accountability: Panel III: Identifying and Prosecuting War Crimes: Two Case Studies: The Former Yugoslavia and Rwanda, 12

N.Y.L. Sch. J. Hum. Rts. 631 (1995).

  • • Colin Warbrick, The United Nations System: A Place for Criminal Courts?, 5 Transnat’l L. & Contemp. Probs. 237 (1995).
  • • Ruth Wedgwood, Prosecuting War Crimes, 149 Mil. L. Rev. 217 (1995).
  • Richard Ashby Wilson, Writing History in International Criminal Trials (2011).
  • • John Yoo, Prosecuting the Peace, Wall St. J., Jan. 6, 2012, http://www.wsj.com/arti- cles/SB10001424052970204720204577128610335846568 (reviewing David Scheffer, All the Missing Souls (2012)).
  • • Ralph Zacklin, The Failings of Ad Hoc International Tribunals, 2 J. Int’l Crim. Just.
  • 541 (2004).

D. MULTIPLE HYBRID TRIBUNALS

  • • Laura Dickinson, The Promise of Hybrid Courts, 97 Am. J. Int’l L. 295 (2003).
  • • Laura Dickinson, Transitional Justice in Afghanistan: The Promise of Mixed Tribunals, 31 Denv. J. Int’l L. & Pol’y 23 (2002).
  • • Etelle R. Higonnet, Restructuring Hybrid Courts: Local Empowerment and National Criminal Justice Reform, 23 Ariz. J. Int’l & Comp. L. 347 (2006).
  • Internationalized Criminal Courts: Sierra Leone, East Timor, Kosovo, and Cambodia (Cesare P.R. Romano et al. eds., 2004).
  • • Susanne Katzenstein, Hybrid Tribunals: The Search for Justice in East Timor, 16 Harv. Hum. Rts. J. 245 (2003).
  • • William A. Schabas, The Special Tribunal for Lebanon: Is a “Tribunal of an International Character” Equivalent to an “International Criminal Court”?, 21 Leiden J. Int’l L. 513 (2008).

E. MILITARY COMMISSIONS/TRIBUNALS

  • • Editorial, Let There Be Law, Wash. Post, July 2, 2006, at B06.
  • • Editorial, Sins of Commissions, Wash. Post, Mar. 27, 2006, at A14.
  • • Editorial, A Victory for Law, Wash. Post, June 30, 2006, at A26.
  • • Louis Fisher, Military Tribunals: Historical Patterns and Lessons (2004), available at http://www.loufisher.org/docs/mt/RL32458.pdf.
  • • Louis Fisher, Military Tribunals: The Quirin Precedent (2002), available at http://www.loufisher.org/docs/mt/RL31340.pdf.
  • • Joan Fitzpatrick, Jurisdiction of Military Commissions and the Ambiguous War on Terrorism, 96 Am. J. Int’l L. 345 (2002).
  • Human Rights Watch, Briefing Paper on U.S. Military Commissions (2004), http://www.hrw.org/legacy/backgrounder/usa/2004/1.htm.
  • Human Rights Watch, Making Sense of the Guantanamo Bay Tribunals (2004), http://www.hrw.org/legacy/english/docs/2004/08/16/usdom9235.htm.
  • Human Rights Watch, U.S. Commission Meets Some, Not All, Rights Concerns (2002), http://www.hrw.org/news/2002/03/20/us-commission-rules- meet-some-not-all-rights-concerns.
  • Human Rights Watch, U.S.: Military Commissions Lack Fair Trial Protections (2004), http://www.hrw.org/news/2004/08/18/us-military- commissions-lack-fair-trial-protections.
  • • Neal Katyal, Sins of Commissions: Why Aren’t We Using the Courts-Martial System at Guantanamo?, Slate (Sept. 8, 2004), http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_poli- tics/jurisprudence/2004/09/sins_of_commissions.html.
  • • Harold Hongju Koh, The Case Against Military Commissions, 96 Am. J. Int’l L. 337 (2002).
  • • Harold Hongju Koh, Op-Ed., We Have the Right Courts for Bin Laden, N.Y. Times, Nov. 23, 2001, at A39.
  • • Charles Krauthammer, Op-Ed., The Trouble with Trials, Wash. Post, Mar. 9, 2001, at A27.
  • • Jonathan Lurie, Military Justice 50 Years After Nuremberg: Some Reflections on Appearance v Reality, 149 Mil. L. Rev. 189 (1995).
  • • Michael J. Matheson, U.S. Military Commissions: One of Several Options, 96 Am.

J. Int’l L. 354 (2002).

  • • Daryl A. Mundis, The Use of Military Commissions to Prosecute Individuals Accused of Terrorist Acts, 96 Am. J. Int’l L. 320 (2002).
  • • Aryeh Neier, The Military Tribunals on Trial, N.Y. Rev. Books, Feb. 14, 2002, at 11.
  • Peter Judson Richards, Extraordinary Justice: Military Tribunals in Historical and International Context (2007).
  • • David J. Scheffer, Op-Ed., Reality Check on Military Commissions, Christian Sci. Monitor, Dec. 10, 2001, at 11.
  • • Ruth Wedgwood, Al Qaeda, Terrorism, and Military Commissions, 96 Am. J. Int’l L. 328 (2002).
  • • Josh White, U.S. Officials Scramble to Find Options, Wash. Post, June 30, 2006, at A6.

F. UNIVERSAL JURISDICTION

  • • Georges Abi-Saab, The Proper Role of Universal Jurisdiction, 1 J. Int’l Crim. Just. 596 (2003).
  • • Louise Arbour, Will the ICC Have an Impact on Universal Jurisdiction?, 1 J. Int’l Crim. Just. 585 (2003).
  • • Richard Bernstein, Belgium Rethinks Its Prosecutorial Zeal, N.Y. Times, Apr. 1,
  • 2003, at A8.
  • • Antonio Cassese, Is the Bell Tolling for Universality? A Plea for a Sensible Notion of Universal Jurisdiction, 1 J. Int’l Crim. Just. 589 (2003).
  • • George P. Fletcher, Against Universal Jurisdiction, 1 J. Int’l Crim. Just. 580 (2003).
  • • Christopher C. Joyner, Arresting Impunity: The Case for Universal Jurisdiction in Bringing War Criminals to Accountability, 59 Law & Contemp. Probs. 153 (1996).
  • • Zachary D. Kaufman, Naomi Roht-Arriazas The Pinochet Effect: Transnational Justice in the Age of Human Rights, 32 Yale J. Int’l L. 297 (2006) (book review).
  • • Henry A. Kissinger, The Pitfalls of Universal Jurisdiction: Risking Judicial Tyranny, Foreign Aff., July-Aug. 2001, at 86.
  • Stephen Macedo, Universal Jurisdiction: National Courts and the Prosecution of Serious Crimes Under International Law (2004).
  • Princeton Principles on Universal Jurisdiction (2001), http://lapa.princeton. edu/hosteddocs/unive_jur.pdf.
  • • Roger O’Keefe, Universal Jurisdiction: Clarifying the Basic Concept, 2 J. Int’l Crim. Just. 735 (2004).
  • • Kenneth C. Randall, Universal Jurisdiction Under International Law, 66 Tex. L. Rev. 785 (1988).
  • • Luc Reydams, Belgium Reneges on Universality: The 5 August 2003 Act on Grave Breaches of International Humanitarian Law, 1 J. Int’l Crim. Just. 679 (2003).
  • • Luc Reydams, Belgium’s First Application of Universal Jurisdiction: The Butare Four Case, 1 J. Int’l Crim. Just. 428 (2003).
  • • Luc Reydams, Universal Jurisdiction: International and Municipal Perspectives (2003).
  • • Luc Reydams, Universal Jurisdiction over Atrocities in Rwanda: Theory and Practice, 1 Eur. J. Crime Crim. L. & Crim. Just. 18 (1996).
  • Naomi Roht-Arriaza, The Pinochet Effect: Transnational Justice in the Age of Human Rights (2005).
  • • Kenneth Roth, The Case for Universal Jurisdiction, Foreign Aff., Sept.-Oct. 2001, at 150.
  • • David J. Scheffer, Opening Address, 35 New Eng. L. Rev. 233 (2001).

G. ARMENIAN GENOCIDE

  • Taner AkCam, From Empire to Republic: Turkish Nationalism and the Armenian Genocide (2004).
  • Peter Balakian, The Burning Tigris: The Armenian Genocide and America’s Response (2003).
  • Kevork Bardakjian, Hitler and the Armenian Genocide (1985).
  • Donald Bloxham, The Great Game of Genocide: Imperialism, Nationalism, and the Destruction of the Ottoman Armenians (2005).
  • Vahakn N. Dadrian, The History of the Armenian Genocide: Ethnic Conflict from the Balkans to Anatolia to the Caucus (1995).
  • A Crime of Silence, The Armenian Genocide: The Permanent Peoples’ Tribunal (Gerard Libaridian ed., 1985).
  • America and the Armenian Genocide of 1915 (Jay Winter ed., 2003).

H. NAZIS/IMT

  • Michael Bazyler & Frank Tuerkheimer, Forgotten Trials of the Holocaust (2014).
  • Tom Bower, The Paperclip Conspiracy (1987).
  • • John T. Burton, “War Crimes” During Operations Other than War: Military Doctrine and Law 50 Years After Nuremberg and Beyond, 149 Mil. L. Rev. 199 (1995).
  • Randall L. Bytwerk, Julius Streicher: Nazi Editor of the Notorious AntiSemitic Newspaper Der Sturmer (2001).
  • Robert E. Conot, Justice at Nuremberg (1983).
  • • Hans Corell, Nuremberg and the Development of an International Criminal Court, 149 Mil. L. Rev. 87 (1995).

• Istvan Deak, Misjudgement at Nuremberg, N.Y. Rev. Books, Oct. 7, 1993, at 46 (reviewing Telford Taylor, The Anatomy of the Nuremberg Trials:

A Personal Memoir (1st ed. 1992), Edward Alexander, A Crime of Vengeance: An Armenian Struggle for Justice (1991), Stephen A. Garrett, Ethics and Airpower in World War II: The British Bombing of German Cities (1993), Alain Finkielkraut, Remebering in Vain: The Klaus Barbie Trial and Crimes Against Humanity (Roxanne Lapidus & Sima Godfrey trans., 1992)).

• Istvan Deak, Post World War II Political Justice in a Historical Perspective, 149 Mil.

L. Rev. 137 (1995).

  • Stuart E. Eizenstat, Imperfect Justice: Looted Assets, Slave Labor, and the Unfinished Business of World War II (2003).
  • • Robinson O. Everett, Opening Comments, 149 Mil. L. Rev. 13 (1995).
  • Alain Finkielkraut, Remembering in Vain: The Klaus Barbie Trial and Crimes Against Humanity (Roxanne Lapidus & Sima Godfrey trans., 1992).
  • Willi Frischauer, The Rise and Fall of Hermann Goering (1951).
  • Daniel Jonah Goldhagen, Hitler’s Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust (1996).
  • • Joseph L. Graves Jr. & David E. Graham, Introduction, 149 Mil. L. Rev. v (1995).
  • Whitney R. Harris, Tyranny on Trial: The Trial of the Major German War Criminals at the End of the World War II at Nuremberg Germany 1945-46 (rev. ed. 1999).
  • Peter Heigl, Nuremberg Trials (2001).
  • • Linda Hunt, U.S. Coverup of Nazi Scientists, Bull. Atomic Scientists, Apr.
  • 1985, at 16.
  • David Irving, Goring: A Biography (1989).
  • Robert H. Jackson, The Case Against the Nazi War Criminals: Opening Statement for the United States of America by Robert H. Jackson and Other Documents (1946).
  • • Robert H. Jackson, Introduction to Whitney R. Harris, Tyranny on Trial: The Trial of the Major German War Criminals at the End of the World War II at Nuremberg Germany 1945-46 at xxix (rev. ed. 1999).
  • • Robert H. Jackson, Report to the President from Justice Robert H. Jackson, Chief of Counsel for the United States in the Prosecution of the Axis War Criminals, June 7, 1945, 39 Am. J. Int’l L. 178 (1945).
  • Robert H. Jackson, Report of Robert H. Jackson: United States Representative to the International Conference on Military Trials (1949).
  • Annie Jacobsen, Operation Paperclip: The Secret Intelligence Program to Bring Nazi Scientists to America (2014).
  • • Douglas Jehl, C.I.A. Defers to Congress, Agreeing to Disclose Nazi Records, N.Y. Times, Feb. 7, 2005, at A4.
  • • Hans-Heinrich Jesheck, The General Principles of International Criminal Law Set Out in Nuremberg, as Mirrored in the ICC Statute, 2 J. Int’l Crim. Just. 38 (2004).
  • • Henry T. King, Jr., The Nuremberg Context from the Eyes of a Participant, 149 Mil.

L. Rev. 37 (1995).

• Thomas F. Lambert, Jr., Recalling the War Crimes Trials of World War II, 149 Mil.

L. Rev. 15 (1995).

• Clarence Lasby, Project Paperclip (1971).

  • Eric Lichtblau, The Nazis Next Door: How America Became a Safe Haven for Hitler’s Men (2014).
  • Roger Manvell & Heinrich Fraenkel, Goering: The Rise and Fall of the Notorious Nazi Leader (2011).
  • • Mark S. Martins, “War Crimes” During Operations Other than War: Military Doctrine and Law Fifty Years After Nuremberg—and Beyond, 149 Mil. L. Rev. 145 (1995).
  • • John Norton Moore, Opening Comments, 149 Mil. L. Rev. 7 (1995).
  • • Fred L. Morrison, The Significance of Nuremberg for Modern International Law, 149 Mil. L. Rev. 207 (1995).
  • Airey Neave, On Trial at Nuremberg (1979).
  • • Edward J. O’Brien, The Nuremberg Principles, Command Responsibility, and the Defense of Captain Rockwood, 149 Mil. L. Rev. 275 (1995).
  • Richard J. Overy, Goering (2000).
  • Richard J. Overy, Goering: The “Iron Man” (1984).
  • Richard J. Overy, Interrogations: The Nazi Elite in Allied Hands, 1945 (2001).
  • Joseph E. Persico, Nuremberg: Infamy on Trial (1994).
  • • Michael P. Scharf, Have We Really Learned the Lessons of Nuremberg?, 149 Mil. L. Rev. 65 (1995).
  • Bradley F. Smith, The American Road to Nuremberg: The Documentary Record, 1944-45 (1982).
  • Bradley F. Smith, Reaching Judgment at Nuremberg (1977).
  • Timothy Snyder, Black Earth: The Holocaust as History and Warning (2015).
  • Telford Taylor, The Anatomy of the Nuremberg Trials: A Personal Memoir (1992).
  • Ann Tusa & John Tusa, The Nuremberg Trial (1995).

I. ADOLF EICHMANN

  • Hannah Arendt, Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil (rev. ed. 1964).
  • • Associated Press, Documents: CIA Concealed Nazi War Criminals, MSNBC, June 7, 2006, http://www.nbcnews.com/id/13171278/.
  • • Hans W. Baade, The Eichmann Trial: Some Legal Aspects, 1961 Duke L.J. 400 (1961).
  • • Pam Benson, CIA Papers: U.S. Failed to Pursue Nazi, CNN, June 7, 2006, http://www. cnn.com/2006/US/06/06/nazi.crimes/index.html.
  • David Cesarani, Becoming Eichmann: Rethinking the Life, Crimes, and Trial of a “Desk Murderer” (2007).
  • • Barry Gewen, The Everyman of Genocide, N.Y. Times, May 14, 2006, at 10 (reviewing David Cesarani, Becoming Eichmann: Rethinking the Life, Crimes, and Trial of a “Desk Murderer” (2007)).
  • Lord Russell of Liverpool, The Trial of Adolph Eichmann (1962).
  • Peter Papadatos, The Eichmann Trial (1964).
  • Moshe Pearlman, The Capture and Trial of Adolph Eichmann (1963).
  • • Shmuel Rosner, Documents Show Post-war CIA Covered Up Nazi Crimes, Haaretz, June 7, 2006, http://www.haaretz.com/beta/documents-show-post- war-cia-covered-up-nazi-war-crimes-1.189490.

• Scott Shane, C.I.A. Knew Where Eichmann Was Hiding, Documents Show, N.Y. Times, June 7, 2006, at A3.

J. JAPANESE/IMTFE

  • Daniel Barenblatt, A Plague upon Humanity: The Hidden History of Japan’s Biological Warfare Program (2004).
  • • Gary Jonathan Bass, Op-Ed., A Shrine to Japan’s Tainted Past, N.Y. Times, Aug. 5, 2006, at A13.
  • • Ralph Blumenthal, Comparing the Unspeakable to the Unthinkable, N.Y. Times, Mar. 7, 1999, at WK4.
  • Arnold C. Brackman, The Other Nuremberg: The Untold Story of the Tokyo War Crimes Trials (1987).
  • The Burma-Thailand Railway: Memory and History (Gavan McCormack & Hank Nelson eds., 1993).
  • Iris Chang, The Rape of Nanking: The Forgotten Holocaust of World War II (1997).
  • • Michael Daly, Japan Dissected My Granddad Live in World War II, Daily Beast, Apr. 8, 2015, http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2015/04/08/world-war-ii-japan-dis- sected-my-granddad-alive.html.
  • Roger Daniels, The Japanese American Cases: The Rule of Law in Time of War (2013).
  • Gavan Daws, Prisoners of the Japanese: POWs of World War II in the Pacific (1994).
  • • Thomas Easton, A Quiet Honesty Records a World War II Atrocity, Balt. Sun,

May 28, 1995, http://articles.baltimoresun.com/1995-05-28/news/1995148003_1_ japan -kyushu- un iver sity-fukuoka.

  • Mark Felton, The Devil’s Doctors: Japanese Human Experiments on Allied Prisoners of War (2012).
  • Madoka Futamura, War Crimes Tribunals and Transitional Justice: The Tokyo Trial and the Nuremberg Legacy (2007).
  • Hal Gold, Unit 731 Testimony (1997).
  • • Shane Green, The Asian Auschwitz of Unit 731, Age (Australia), Aug. 29, 2002, http:// www.theage.com.au/articles/2002/08/28/1030508070534.html.
  • Sheldon H. Harris, Factories of Death: Japanese Biological Warfare, 193245, and the American Coverup (2002).
  • George L. Hicks, The Comfort Women: Japan’s Brutal Regime of Enforced Prostitution in the Second World War (1995).
  • • Solis Horwitz, The Tokyo Trial, Int’l Conciliation, Nov. 1950, at 473.
  • Japan’s Wartime Medical Atrocities: Comparative Inquiries in Science, History, and Ethics (Jing-Bao Nie et al. eds., 2010).
  • Japanese War Crimes: The Search for Justice (Peter Li ed., 2003).
  • Joseph B. Keenan, Prosecutor, Dies, N.Y. Times, Dec. 9, 1954, at 33.
  • • Zachary D. Kaufman, No Right to Fight: The Modern Implications of Japan’s Pacifist Postwar Constitution, 33 Yale J. Int’l L. 266 (2008).
  • • Zachary D. Kaufman, Transitional Justice for Tojo’s Japan: The United States Role in the Establishment of the International Military Tribunal for the Far East and Other

Transitional Justice Mechanisms for Japan After World War II, 27 Emory Int’l L. Rev. 755 (2013).

  • Donald Knox, Death March: The Survivors of Bataan (1981).
  • • Nicholas D. Kristof, Unmasking Horror—A Special Report; Japan Confronting Gruesome War Atrocity, N.Y. Times, Mar. 17, 1995, http://www.nytimes.com/1995/03/17/world/ unmasking-horror-a-special-report-japan-confronting-gruesome-war-atrocity.html.
  • • Kyodo, US Paid for Japanese Human Germ Warfare Data, Austl. Broadcasting Corp., Aug. 15, 2005, http://www.abc.net.au/news/2005-08-15/us-paid-for-japanese- human-germ-warfare-data/2080618.
  • • Bruce D. Landrum, The Yamashita War Crimes Trials: Command Responsibility Then and Now, 149 Mil. L. Rev. 293 (1995).
  • Tim Maga, Judgment at Tokyo: The Japanese War Crimes Trials (2001).
  • • Justin McCurry, Japan’s Sins of the Past, Guardian Unlimited, Oct. 28, 2004, http:// www.theguardian.com/world/2004/oct/28/worlddispatch.justinmccurry.
  • Richard H. Minear, Victors’ Justice: The Tokyo War Crimes Trial (1971).
  • • Elaine O’Flynn, US Bomber Crew Shot Down over Japan Were Dissected While Alive in Horrific WW2 Experiments, Daily Mail (United Kingdom), Apr. 7, 2015, http://www. dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3028694/U-S-POWs-shot-Japan-70-years-ago-dis- sected-ALIVE-macabre-experiments-controversial-new-exhibition-shows.html.
  • • R. John Pritchard, The International Military Tribunal for the Far East and Its Contemporary Resonance, 149 Mil. L. Rev. 25 (1995).
  • Laurence Rees, Horror in the East: Japan and the Atrocities of World War II (2002).
  • Bernard Victor A. Roling, The Tokyo Trial and Beyond: Reflections of a Peacemonger (Antonio Cassese ed., 1993).
  • Yuki Tanaka, Hidden Horrors: Japanese War Crimes in World War II (1996).
  • • Didi Kirsten Tatlow, Q. and A.: Gao Yubao on Documenting Unit 731’s Brutal Human Experiments, N.Y. Times, Oct. 21, 2015, http://sinosphere.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/10/ 21/china-unit-731-japan-war-crimes/.
  • The Tokyo War Crimes Trial: An International Symposium (C. Hosoya et al. eds., 1986).
  • Peter Williams & David Wallace, Unit 731: Japan’s Secret Biological Warfare in World War II (1989).
  • With Only the Will to Live: Accounts of Americans in Japanese Prison Camps, 1941-45 (Robert La Forte et al. eds., 1994).

K. POL pot/khmer rouge/eccc

• Mann (Mac) Bunyanunda, The Khmer Rouge on Trial: Whither the Defense?, 74 S. Cal.

L. Rev 1581 (2001).

  • David Chandler, Voice from S-21: Terror and History in Pol Pot’s Secret Prison (1999).
  • John D. Ciorciari & Ann Heindel, Hybrid Justice: The Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (2014).
  • Benedict F. Kiernan, The Pol Pot Regime: Race, Power, and Genocide in Cambodia under the Khmer Rouge, 1975-79 (3d ed. 2008).
  • Genocide and Democracy in Cambodia: The Khmer Rouge, the United Nations and the International Community (Benedict F. Kiernan ed., 1993).
  • Benedict F. Kiernan, Cambodia: The Eastern Zone Massacres (1986).
  • Benedict F. Kiernan, How Pol Pot Came to Power: A History of Communism in Kampuchea, 1930-75 (1985).
  • • Scott Luftglass, Crossroad in Cambodia: The United Nations’ Responsibility to Withdraw Involvement from the Establishment of a Cambodian Tribunal to Prosecute the Khmer Rouge, 90 Va. L. Rev. 893 (2004).
  • • Seth Mydans, Pol Pot, Brutal Dictator Who Forced Cambodians to Killing Fields, Dies at 73, N.Y. Times, Apr. 17, 1998, at A14.
  • • David J. Scheffer, Op-Ed., Justice for Cambodia, N.Y. Times, Dec. 21, 2002, at A21.
  • Philip Short, Pol Pot: Anatomy of a Nightmare (2005).

L. THE BALKANS

  • • Ivo Andric, The Bridge of the Drina (Lovett F. Edwards trans., 1994).
  • Wesley K. Clark, Waging Modern War: Bosnia, Kosovo, and the Future of Combat (2002).
  • • Ivo H. Daalder, Getting to Dayton: The Making of America’s Bosnia Policy (2000).
  • Aleksa Djilas, The Contested Country: Yugoslav Unity and Communist Revolution, 1919-53 (1996).
  • Aleksa Djilas, Yugoslavia: Dictatorship and Disintegration (1999).
  • Misha Glenny, The Balkans: Nationalism, War, and the Great Powers, 1804-1999 (2000).
  • Misha Glenny, The Fall of Yugoslavia: The Third Balkan War (3d rev. ed. 1996).
  • • Christine Gray, Bosnia and Herzegovina: Civil War or Inter-state Conflict? Characterization and Consequences, Brit. Y.B. Int’l L., 1996, at 155.
  • • Chris Hedges, Kosovo’s Next Masters?, Foreign Aff., May-June 1999, at 24.
  • Richard Holbrooke, To End a War (1998).
  • Timothy Judah, The Serbs: History, Myth and the Destruction of Yugoslavia (1997).
  • Robert D. Kaplan, Balkan Ghosts: A Journey Through History (1996).
  • Noel Malcolm, Bosnia: A Short History (1996).
  • Noel Malcolm, Kosovo: A Short History (1999).
  • David Rohde, Endgame: The Betrayal and Fall of Srebrenica: Europe’s Worst Massacre Since World War II (1997).
  • Laura Silber & Allan Little, Yugoslavia: Death of a Nation (1997).
  • • Rebecca West, Black Lamb and Grey Falcon: A Journey Through Yugoslavia
  • (1994).

M. ICTY

  • • Payam Akhavan, Enforcement of the Genocide Convention: A Challenge to Civilization, 8 Harv. Hum. Rts. J. 229 (1995).
  • • Payam Akhavan, Justice in The Hague, Peace in the Former Yugoslavia? A Commentary on the United Nations War Crimes Tribunal, 20 Hum. Rts. Q. 737 (1998).
  • • Payam Akhavan, Punishing War Crimes in the Former Yugoslavia: A Critical Juncture for the New World Order, 15 Hum. Rts. Q. 262 (1993).
  • • Payam Akhavan, The Yugoslav Tribunal at a Crossroads: The Dayton Peace Agreement and Beyond, 18 Hum. Rts. Q. 259 (1996).
  • • Louise Arbour, The Crucial Years, 2 J. Int’l Crim. Just. 396 (2004).
  • • Gary Jonathan Bass, Milosevic in the Hague, Foreign Aff., May-June 2003, at 82.
  • • M. Cherif Bassiouni, The United Nations Commission of Experts Established Pursuant to Security Council Resolution 780 (1992), 88 Am. J. Int’l L. 784 (1994).
  • • Andrew Bell-Fialkoff, A Brief History of Ethnic Cleansing, Foreign Aff., Summer 1993, at 110.
  • Michael Brown, The Trial of Slobodan Milosevic (2004).
  • • Antonio Cassese, The ICTY: A Living and Vital Reality, 2 J. Int’l Crim. Just. 585
  • (2004).
  • Norman Cigar & Paul Williams, Indictment at the Hague: The Milosevic Regime and Crimes of the Balkan Wars (2002).
  • Hans Corell, Proposal for an International War Crimes Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (1993).
  • • Anthony D’Amato, Peace vs. Accountability in Bosnia, 88 Am. J. Int’l L. 500 (1994).
  • Slavenka Drakulic, They Would Never Hurt a Fly: War Criminals on Trial in the Hague (2004).
  • Aleksander Fatic, Reconciliation via the War Crimes Tribunal? (2000).
  • • Richard Goldstone, A View from the Prosecution, 2 J. Int’l Crim. Just. 380 (2004).
  • John Hagan, Justice in the Balkans: Prosecuting War Crimes in the Hague Tribunal (2003).
  • Pierre Hazan, Justice in a Time of War: The True Story Behind The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (James Thomas Snyder trans., 2004).
  • • Larry D. Johnson, Ten Years Later: Reflections on the Drafting, 2 J. Int’l Crim. Just. 368 (2004).
  • Rachel Kerr, The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia: An Exercise in Law, Politics, and Diplomacy (2004).
  • Adam LeBor, Milosevic: A Biography (2004).
  • Karine Lescure, International Justice for Former Yugoslavia: The Workings of the International Criminal Tribunal of The Hague (1996).
  • • Gabrielle Kirk McDonald, Problems, Obstacles and Achievements of the ICTY, 2 J.

Int’l Crim. Just. 558 (2004).

  • • Theodor Meron, Answering for War Crimes: Lessons from the Balkans, Foreign Aff., Jan.-Feb. 2001, at 2.
  • • Theodor Meron, The Case for War Crimes Trials in Yugoslavia, Foreign Aff., Summer 1993, at 122.
  • • Theodor Meron, War Crimes in Yugoslavia and the Development of International Law, 88 Am. J. Int’l L. 78 (1994).
  • The Milosevic Trial: An Autopsy (Timothy William Waters ed., 2014).
  • Virginia Morris & Michael P. Scharf, An Insider’s Guide to the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (1995).
  • • James C. O’Brien, The International Tribunal for Violations of International Humanitarian Law in the Former Yugoslavia, 87 Am. J. Int’l L. 639 (1993).
  • • Victor Peskin & Mieczyslaw P. Boduszynski, International Justice and Domestic Politics: Post-Tudjman Croatia and the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, 55 Eur.-Asia Stud. 1117 (2003).
  • Michael P. Scharf, Balkan Justice: The Story Behind the First International War Crimes Trial Since Nuremberg (1997).
  • Michael P. Scharf & William A. Schabas, Slobodan Milosevic on Trial: A Companion (2002).
  • • David J. Scheffer, Three Memories from the Year of Origin, 1993, 2 J. Int’l Crim. Just. 353 (2004).
  • • Minna Schrag, Lessons Learned from ICTY Experience, 2 J. Int’l Crim. Just. 427 (2004).
  • • Daphna Shraga & Ralph Zacklin, The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, 5 Eur. J. Int’l L. 360 (1994).
  • Chris Stephen, Judgement Day: The Trial of Slobodan Milosevic (2004).
  • • Ninian Stephen, A Viable International Mechanism, 2 J. Int’l Crim. Just. 385 (2004).
  • Eric Stover, The Witnesses: War Crimes and the Promise of Justice in The Hague (2005).
  • • Paul C. Szasz, The Proposed War Crimes Tribunal for Ex-Yugoslavia, 25 N.Y.U. J. Int’l L. & Pol. 405 (1993).
  • United Nations, ICTY, The Path to the Hague: Selected Documents on the Origins of the ICTY (1996).
  • United States Congress, Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe, The War Crimes Trials for the Former Yugoslavia: Prospects and Problems (1996).
  • • Luisa Vierucci, The First Steps of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, 6 Eur. J. Int’l L. 134 (1995).
  • • L.C. Vohrah, Some Insights into the Early Years, 2 J. Int’l Crim. Just. 388 (2004).
  • • Patricia M. Wald, ICTY Judicial Proceedings: An Appraisal from Within, 2 J. Int’l Crim. Just. 466 (2004).
  • Paul R. Williams & Michael P. Scharf, Peace with Justice?: War Crimes and Accountability in the Former Yugoslavia (2002).
  • The “Yugoslav” Crisis in International Law (Daniel Bethlehem & Marc Weller

eds., 1997).

• Ralph Zacklin, Some Major Problems in the Drafting of the ICTY Statute, 2 J. Int’l Crim. Just. 361 (2004).

N. RWANDA

  • African Rights, Rwanda: Death, Despair, and Defiance (rev. ed. 1995).
  • African Rights, Rwanda: Killing the Evidence: Murder, Attacks, Arrests, and Intimidation of Survivors and Witnesses (1996).
  • African Rights, Rwanda: Not so Innocent: When Women Become Killers
  • (1995).
  • After Genocide: Transitional Justice, Post-conflict Reconstruction, and Reconciliation in Rwanda and Beyond (Phil Clark & Zachary D. Kaufman eds., 2009) (republished 2013 by Oxford University Press).
  • • Jose E. Alvarez, Crimes of State/Crimes of Hate: Lessons from Rwanda, 24 Yale J. Int’l L. 365 (1999).
  • Michael Barnett, Eyewitness to a Genocide: The United Nations and Rwanda (2002).
  • • James Bennett, Clinton Declares U.S. and the World Failed Rwandans, N.Y. Times, Mar. 26, 1998, at A1.
  • John A. Berry & Carol Pott Berry, Genocide in Rwanda: A Collective Memory (1999).
  • • Boutros Boutros-Ghali, Introduction to United Nations Dep’t of Pub. Information, The United Nations and Rwanda, 1993-96, at 3 (1996).
  • • Phil Clark & Zachary D. Kaufman, After Genocide, in After Genocide: Transitional Justice, Post-conflict Reconstruction, and Reconciliation in Rwanda and Beyond 1, 1-19 (Phil Clark & Zachary

D. Kaufman eds., 2009).

  • • Phil Clark & Zachary D. Kaufman, Rwanda: Recent History, in Africa South of the Sahara 2016, 969 (Iain Frame ed., 2015).
  • • Phil Clark & Zachary D. Kaufman, Rwanda: Recent History, in Africa South of the Sahara 2015, 971 (Iain Frame ed., 2014).
  • • Phil Clark & Zachary D. Kaufman, Rwanda: Recent History, in Africa South of the Sahara 2014, 980 (Iain Frame ed., 2013).
  • • Phil Clark & Zachary D. Kaufman, Rwanda: Recent History, in Africa South of the Sahara 2013, 984 (Iain Frame ed., 2012).
  • • Phil Clark & Zachary D. Kaufman, Rwanda: Recent History, in Africa South of the Sahara 2012, 993 (Iain Frame ed., 2011).
  • • Phil Clark & Zachary D. Kaufman, Rwanda: Recent History, in Africa South of the Sahara 2011, 977 (Iain Frame ed., 2010).
  • • Phil Clark & Zachary D. Kaufman, Rwanda: Recent History, in Africa South of the Sahara 2010, 968 (Iain Frame ed., 2009).
  • • Phil Clark & Zachary D. Kaufman, Rwanda: Recent History, in Africa South of the Sahara 2009, 924 (Iain Frame ed., 2008).
  • • Phil Clark & Zachary D. Kaufman, Rwanda: Recent History, in Africa South of the Sahara 2008, 927 (Iain Frame ed., 2007).
  • • Phil Clark & Zachary D. Kaufman, Rwanda: Recent History, in Africa South of the Sahara 2007, 935 (Iain Frame ed., 2006).
  • Romeo Dallaire, Shake Hands with the Devil: The Failure of Humanity in Rwanda (2003).
  • • Romeo Dallaire et al., The Major Powers on Trial, 3 J. Int’l Crim. Just. 861 (2005).
  • Alison Des Forges, Leave None to Tell the Story: Genocide in Rwanda (1999).
  • Alain Destexhe, Rwanda and Genocide in the Twentieth Century (Alison Marschner trans., 1995).
  • • Mark Drumbl, Sclerosis: Retributive Justice and the Rwandan Genocide, 2 Punishment & Soc’y 287 (2000).
  • Nigel Eltringham, Accounting for Horror: Post-genocide Debates in Rwanda (2004).
  • John Eriksson, The International Response to Conflict and Genocide: Lessons from the Rwanda Experience (1996), available at http://pdf.usaid.gov/ pdf_docs/PNACG921.pdf.
  • Scott R. Feil, Preventing Genocide: How the Early Use of Force Might Have Succeeded in Rwanda (1998).
  • Lee Ann Fujii, Killing Neighbors: Webs of Violence in Rwanda (2009).
  • Philip Gourevitch, We Wish to Inform You That Tomorrow We Will Be Killed with Our Families: Stories from Rwanda (1998).
  • Fred Grunfeld & Anke Huijboom, The Failure to Prevent Genocide in Rwanda: The Role of Bystanders (2007).
  • Jean Hatzfeld, The Antelope’s Strategy: Living in Rwanda After the Genocide (Linda Coverdale trans., 2009).
  • Jean Hatzfeld, Into the Quick of Life: The Rwandan Genocide: The Survivors Speak (Gerry Feehily trans., 2005).
  • Jean Hatzfeld, Machete Season: The Killers in Rwanda Speak (Linda Coverdale trans., 2005).
  • Immaculee Ilibagiza, Left to Tell: Discovering God Amidst the Rwandan Holocaust (2006).
  • Joshua James Kassner, Rwanda and the Moral Obligation of Humanitarian Intervention (2012).
  • • Zachary D. Kaufman, Transitional Justice as Genocide Prevention: From a Culture of Impunity to a Culture of Accountability, in Confronting Genocide in Rwanda: Dehumanization, Denial, and Strategies for Prevention 363 (Jean- Damascene Gasanabo et al. eds., 2014).
  • • Zachary D. Kaufman & Pierre-Richard St. Hilaire, The Rwandan Experience, in Rwanda and South Africa in Dialogue: Addressing the Legacies of Genocide and a Crime Against Humanity 41 (Charles Villa-Vicencio & Tyrone Savage eds., 2001).
  • Fergal Keane, Season of Blood: A Rwandan Journey (1995).
  • Arthur Jay Klinghoffer, The International Dimension of Genocide in Rwanda (1998).
  • Alan J. Kuperman, The Limits of Humanitarian Intervention: Genocide in Rwanda (2001).
  • • Alan J. Kuperman, Rwanda in Retrospect, Foreign Aff., Jan.-Feb. 2000, at 94.
  • • Neil A. Lewis, Papers Show U.S. Knew of Genocide in Rwanda, N.Y. Times, Aug. 22, 2001, at A5.
  • • Paul J. Magnarella, The Background and Causes of the Genocide in Rwanda, 3 J. Int’l Crim. Just. 801 (2005).
  • Linda Melvern, Conspiracy to Murder: The Rwandan Genocide and the International Community (rev. ed. 2006).
  • Linda Melvern, A People Betrayed: The Role of the West in Rwanda’s Genocide (2d ed. 2009).
  • • Jamie Frederic Metzl, Rwandan Genocide and the International Law of Radio Jamming, 91 Am. J. Int’l L. 628 (1997).
  • Larry Minear & Philippe Guillot, Soldiers to the Rescue: Humanitarian Lessons from Rwanda (1996).
  • • Jean Mukimbiri, The Seven Stages of the Rwandan Genocide, 3 J. Int’l Crim. Just. 823
  • (2005).
  • Louise Mushikiwabo & Jack Kramer, Rwanda Means the Universe:

A Native’s Memoir of Blood and Bloodlines (2006).

  • Organization of African Unity, Rwanda: The Preventable Genocide (2000), available at http://www.refworld.org/pdfid/4d1da8752.pdf.
  • Nicola Palmer, Courts in Conflict: Interpreting the Layers of Justice in Post-genocide Rwanda (2015).
  • The Path of a Genocide: The Rwanda Crisis from Uganda to Zaire (Howard Adelman & Astri Suhrke eds., 1999).
  • Gerard Prunier, Africa’s World War: Congo, the Rwandan Genocide, and the Making of a Continental CATAsTRoPHe (2009).
  • Gerard Prunier, The Rwanda Crisis, 1959-94: History of a Genocide (2d ed. 1998).
  • Remaking Rwanda: State Building and Human Rights After Mass Violence (Scott Straus & Lars Waldorf eds., 2011).
  • • David J. Scheffer, Lessons from the Rwandan Genocide, Geo. J. Int’l Aff., Summer- Fall 2004, at 125.
  • Scott Straus, The Order of Genocide: Race, Power, and War in Rwanda
  • (2006).
  • United Nations, The United Nations and Rwanda: 1993-96 (1996).
  • The US and the Genocide in Rwanda 1994: Evidence of Inaction (William Ferroggiaro ed., 2001), available at http://nsarchive.gwu.edu/NSAEBB/NSAEBB53/ press.html.
  • U.S. Inst. Peace, Rwanda: Accountability for War Crimes and Genocide (1995), available at http://www.usip.org/publications/rwanda-accountability-war- crimes-and-genocide.
  • Peter Uvin, Aiding Violence: The Development Enterprise in Rwanda (1998).
  • • Peter Uvin, Prejudice, Crisis, and Genocide in Rwanda, Afr. Stud. Rev., Sept.
  • 1997, at 91.
  • Andrew Wallis, Silent Accomplice: The Untold Story of France’s Role in the Rwandan Genocide (rev. ed. 2014).

O. ICTR

  • • Payam Akhavan, The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda: The Politics and Pragmatics of Punishment, 90 Am. J. Int’l L. 501 (1996).
  • • Payam Akhavan, Justice and Reconciliation in the Great Lakes Region: The Contribution of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, 7 Duke J. Comp. & Int’l L. 325
  • (1997).
  • • Cecile Aptel, The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, 1997 Int’l Rev. Red Cross 605.
  • • Olivier Dubois, Rwanda’s National Criminal Courts and the International Tribunal,
  • 1997 Int’l Rev. Red Cross 717.
  • • Gerhard Erasmus & Nadine Fourie, The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda: Are All Issues Addressed? How Does It Compare to South Africa’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission?, 1997 Int’l Rev. Red Cross 705.
  • • Frederik Harhoff, The Rwanda Tribunal: A Representation of Some Legal Aspects, 1997 Int’l Rev. Red Cross 665.
  • • Jaana Karhilo, The Establishment of the International Tribunal for Rwanda, 64 Nordic J. Int’l L. 683 (1995).
  • • Zachary D. Kaufman, International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, in The Encyclopedia of Transitional Justice ;233 (Lavinia Stan & Nadya Nedelsky eds., 2012).
  • • Zachary D. Kaufman, The United States Role in the Establishment of the United Nations International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, in After Genocide: Transitional Justice, Post-conflict Reconstruction, and Reconciliation in Rwanda and Beyond 229 (Phil Clark & Zachary D. Kaufman eds., 2009).
  • • Roy S. Lee, The Rwanda Tribunal, 9 Leiden J. Int’l L. 37 (1996).
  • Paul J. Magnarella, Justice in Africa: Rwanda’s Genocide, Its Courts, and the UN Criminal Tribunal (2000).
  • Kinglsey Moghalu, Rwanda’s Genocide: The Politics of Global Justice (2005).
  • Virginia Morris & Michael P. Scharf, The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (1998).
  • • Erik M0se, Main Achievements of the ICTR, 3 J. Int’l Crim. Just. 920 (2005).
  • • Victor Peskin, Conflicts of Justice—An Analysis of the Role of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, Int’l Peacekeeping, July-Dec. 2000, at 128.
  • • Victor Peskin, Courting Rwanda: The Promises and Pitfalls of the ICTR Outreach Programme, 3 J. Int’l Crim. Just. 950 (2005).
  • • Victor Peskin, Rwandan Ghosts, Legal Aff., Sept.-Oct. 2002, at 21.
  • • William A. Schabas, Anti-complementarity: Referral to National Jurisdictions by the UN International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, Max Planck Y.B. U.N. L., 2009, at 29.
  • • Michael P. Scharf, Responding to Rwanda: Accountability Mechanisms in the Aftermath of Genocide, 52 J. Int’l Aff. 621 (1999).
  • • Daphna Shraga & Ralph Zacklin, The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, 7 Eur. J. Int’l L. 501 (1996).
  • • Lyal S. Sunga, The Commission of Experts on Rwanda and the Creation of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, 16 Hum. Rts. L.J. 121 (1995).
  • Dina Temple-Raston, Justice on the Grass: Three Rwandan Journalists, Their Trial for War Crimes, and a Nation’s Quest for Redemption (2005).
  • • Brenda Sue Thornton, The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda: A Report from the Field, 52 J. Int’l Aff. 639 (1999).
  • L. J. van den Herik, The Contribution of the Rwanda Tribunal to the Development of International Law (2005).
  • • Mariann Meier Wang, The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda:

Opportunities for Clarification, Opportunities for Impact, 27 Colum. Hum. Rts. L. Rev.

  • 177 (1995).
  • • Djiena Wembou, The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda: Its Role in the African Context, 1997 Int’l Rev. Red Cross 685.

P. GACACA

  • African Rights, Gacaca Justice: A Shared Responsibility (2003).
  • Amnesty Int’l, Rwanda: Gacaca: A Question of Justice (2002), available at http://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/AFR47/007/2002/en/.
  • Phil Clark, The Gacaca Courts, Post-genocide Justice and Reconciliation in Rwanda: Justice Without Lawyers (2010).
  • • Phil Clark, The Rules (and Politics) of Engagement: The Gacaca Courts and Post-Genocide Justice, Healing, and Reconciliation in Rwanda, in After Genocide: Transitional Justice, Post-conflict Reconstruction, and Reconciliation in Rwanda and Beyond 297 (Phil Clark & Zachary D. Kaufman eds., 2009).
  • • Phil Clark, When the Killers Go Home: Local Justice in Rwanda, Dissent, Summer 2005, at 14.
  • • Helena Cobban, The Legacies of Collective Violence: The Rwandan Genocide and the Limits of Law, Boston Rev. (Apr.-May 2002), available at http://new.bostonreview. net/BR27.2/cobban.html.
  • • Allison Corey & Sandra F. Joireman, Retributive Justice: The Gacaca Courts in Rwanda, 103 African Aff. 73 (2004).
  • • Erin Daly, Between Punitive Justice and Reconstructive Justice: The Gacaca Courts in Rwanda, 34 N.Y.U. J. In’tl L. & Pol. 355 (2002).
  • • Alison Des Forges & Kenneth Roth, Justice or Therapy, Boston Rev. (Summer 2002), available at http://new.bostonreview.net/BR27.3/rothdesForges.html (reviewing Helena Cobban, The Legacies of Collective Violence: The Rwandan Genocide and the Limits of Law, Boston Rev. (Apr.-May 2002), available at http://new.bostonreview. net/BR27.2/cobban.html)).
  • • Jacques Fierens, Gacaca Courts: Between Fantasy and Reality, 3 J. Int’l Crim. Just.
  • 896 (2005).
  • Peter E. Harrell, Rwanda’s Gamble: Gacaca and the New Model of Transitional Justice (2003).
  • • George Packer, Justice on a Hill: Genocide Trials in Rwanda, Dissent, Spring 2002, at 59.
  • • William A. Schabas, Genocide Trials and Gacaca Courts, 3 J. Int’l Crim. Just. 879 (2005).
  • • Danielle L. Tully, Human Rights Compliance and the Gacaca Jurisdictions in Rwanda, 26 B.C. Int’l & Comp. L. Rev. 385 (2003).
  • • Peter Uvin, The Gacaca Tribunals in Rwanda (Case Study), in Reconciliation After Violent Conflict: A Handbook 116, 116-21 (D. Bloomfield et al. eds., 2003).
  • • Aneta Wierzynska, Consolidating Democracy Through Transitional Justice: Rwanda’s Gacaca Courts, 79 N.Y.U. L. Rev. 1934 (2004).

Q. ICC

  • Tim Allen, Trial Justice: The International Criminal Court and the Lord’s Resistance Army (2006).
  • • Mahnoush H. Arsanjani, The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, 93 Am. J. Int’l L. 22 (1999).
  • • M. Cherif Bassiouni, Establishing an International Criminal Court: Historical Survey, 149 Mil. L. Rev. 49 (1995).
  • • M. Cherif Bassiouni, From Versailles to Rwanda in Seventy-Five Years: The Need

to Establish a Permanent International Criminal Court, 10 Harv. Hum. Rts. J. 11 (1997).

• David Bosco, Rough Justice: The International Criminal Court in a World of Power Politics (2014).

  • Bruce Broomhall, International Justice and the International Criminal Court: Between Sovereignty and the Rule of Law (2003).
  • • Matthew R. Brubacher, Prosecutorial Discretion Within the International Criminal Court, 2 J. Int’l Crim. Just. 71 (2004).
  • • Douglass Cassel, Empowering United States Courts to Hear Crimes Within the Jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court, 35 New Eng. L. Rev. 421 (2001).
  • Commentary on the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (Otto Triffterer ed., 1999).
  • Council on Foreign Relations, Toward an International Criminal Court?
  • (1999).
  • Courting Conflict? Justice, Peace and the ICC in Africa (Phil Clark & Nicholas Waddell eds., 2008).
  • • James Crawford, The ILC Adopts a Statute for an International Criminal Court, 89 Am. J. Int’l L. 404 (1995).
  • • Allison Marston Danner, Enhancing the Legitimacy and Accountability of Prosecutorial Discretion at the International Criminal Court, 97 Am. J. Int’l L. 510 (2003).
  • • Zsuzsanna Deen-Racsmany, The Nationality of the Offender and the Jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court, 95 Am. J. Int’l L. 606 (2001).
  • Essays on the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (Flavia Lattanzi & William A. Schabas eds., 1999).
  • Lee Feinstein & Tod Lindberg, Means to an End: U.S. Interest in the International Criminal Court (2009).
  • Benjamin B. Ferencz, An International Criminal Court, a Step Toward World Peace: A Documentary History and Analysis (1980).
  • • George A. Finch, Draft Statute for an International Criminal Court, 46 Am. J. Int’l L. 89 (1952).
  • • Michael J. Gilligan, Is Enforcement Necessary for Effectiveness? A Model of the International Criminal Regime, 60 Int’l Org. 935 (2006).
  • • Jack Goldsmith, The Self-Defeating International Criminal Court, 70 U. Chi. L. Rev. 89 (2003).
  • • Manley O. Hudson, The Proposed International Criminal Court, 32 Am. J. Int’l L. 549 (1938).
  • • David Hunt, The International Criminal Court, 2 J. Int’l Crim. Just. 56 (2004).
  • International Crimes, Peace, and Human Rights: The Role of the International Criminal Court (Dinah Shelton ed., 2000).
  • The International Criminal Court: Elements of Crimes and Rules of Procedure and Evidence (Roy S. Lee ed., 2001).
  • The International Criminal Court: The Making of the Rome Statute— Issues, Negotiations, Results (Roy S. Lee ed., 1999).
  • • Claude Jorda, The Major Hurdles and Accomplishments of the ICC: What the ICC Can Learn from Them, 2 J. Int’l Crim. Just. 572 (2004).
  • • Zachary D. Kaufman, The United States, Syria, and the International Criminal Court: Implications of the Rome Statute’s Aggression Amendment, 55 Harv. Int’l L.J. Online 35 (2013).
  • • Zachary D. Kaufman, Justice in Jeopardy: Accountability for the Darfur Atrocities, 16 Crim. L.F. 343 (2006).
  • • Zachary D. Kaufman, Sudan, the United States, and the International Criminal Court: A Tense Triumvirate in Transitional Justice for Darfur, in The Criminal Law of Genocide: International, Comparative and Contextual Aspects 49 (Ralph Henham & Paul Benhrens eds., 2007).
  • • Philippe Kirsch & John T. Holmes, The Rome Conference on an International Criminal Court: The Negotiating Process, 93 Am. J. Int’l L. 2 (1999).
  • • Monroe Leigh, Evaluating Present Options for an International Criminal Court, 149 Mil. L. Rev. 113 (1995).
  • • Howard S. Levie, Evaluating Present Options for an International Criminal Court, 149 Mil. L. Rev. 129 (1995).
  • • Daryl A. Mundis, The Assembly of States Parties and the Institutional Framework of the International Criminal Court, 97 Am. J. Int’l L. 132 (2003).
  • • Vespasian V. Pella, Towards an International Criminal Court, 44 Am. J. Int’l L. 37 (1950).
  • The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court: A Challenge to Impunity (Mauro Politi & Giuseppe Nesi eds., 2001).
  • The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court: A Commentary (Antonio Cassese et al. eds., 2002).
  • Leila Nadya Sadat, The International Criminal Court and the Transformation of International Law: Justice for the New Millennium (2002).
  • • William A. Schabas, First Prosecutions at the International Criminal Court, 25 Hum. Rts. L.J. 25 (2006).
  • William A. Schabas, The International Criminal Court: A Commentary on the Rome Statute (2010).
  • William A. Schabas, An Introduction to the International Criminal Court (4th ed. 2011).
  • • William A. Schabas, United States Hostility to the International Criminal Court: It’s All About the Security Council, 15 Eur. J. Int’l L. 701 (2004).
  • • Beth Simmons & Allison Danner, Credible Commitments and the International Criminal Court, 64 Int’l Org. 225 (2010).
  • • Janice Simpson & Richard J. Goldstone, Evaluating the Role of the International Criminal Court as a Legal Response to Terrorism, 16 Harv. Hum. Rts. J. 13 (2003).
  • • Francisco Orrego Vicuna, The International Criminal Court and the In and Out Club, 2 J. Int’l Crim. Just. 35 (2004).
  • • Quincy Wright, Proposal for an International Criminal Court, 46 Am. J. Int’l L. 60
  • (1952).

R. INTERNATIONAL CITIZENS’ WAR CRIMES TRIBUNALS

• Arthur S. Blaser, How to Advance Human Rights Without Really Trying, 14 Hum. Rts.

Q. 339 (1992).

  • • Christine M. Chinkin, Women’s International Tribunal on Japanese Military Sexual Slavery, 95 Am. J. Int’l L. 335 (2001).
  • • Zachary D. Kaufman, Transitional Justice Delayed Is Not Transitional Justice Denied: Contemporary Confrontation of Japanese Human Experimentation During World War II Through a People’s Tribunal, 26 Yale L. & Pol’y Rev. 645 (2008).
  • • Arthur Jay Klinghoffer, International Citizens’ Tribunals on Human Rights, in Genocide, War Crimes and the West (Adam Jacobs ed., 2004).

• Arthur Jay Klinghoffer & Judith Klinghoffer, International Citizens’ Tribunals: Mobilizing Public Opinion to Advance Human Rights (2002).

S. TRUTH COMMISSIONS

  • Alex Boraine, A Country Unmasked: Inside South Africa’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission (2000).
  • Jamed Edward Beitler, Remaking Transitional Justice in the United States: The Rhetorical Authorization of the Greensboro Truth and Reconciliation Commission (2013).
  • Mark Freeman, Truth Commissions and Procedural Fairness (2006).
  • • Priscilla B. Hayner, International Guidelines for the Creation and Operation of Truth Commissions: A Preliminary Proposal, 59 Law & Contemp. Probs. 173 (1996).
  • Priscilla B. Hayner, Unspeakable Truths: Transitional Justice and the Challenge of Truth Commissions (2d ed. 2011).
  • Spoma Jovanovic, Democracy, Dialogue, and Community Action: Truth and Reconciliation in Greensboro (2012).
  • Lisa Magarrell & Joya Wesley, Learning from Greensboro: Truth and Reconciliation in the United States (2008).
  • • Maine Wabanaki-State Child Welfare Truth and Reconciliation Commission, http:// www.mainewabanakitrc.org (last visited July 26, 2015).
  • Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela, Long Walk to Freedom: The Autobiography of Nelson Mandela (1995).
  • • Margaret Popkin & Naomi Roht-Arriaza, Truth as Justice: Investigatory Commissions in Latin America, 20 L. & Soc. Inquiry 79 (1995).
  • • Michael P. Scharf, The Case for a Permanent International Truth Commission, 7 Duke J. Comp. & Int’l L. 375 (1997).
  • • Carsten Stahn, Accommodating Individual Criminal Responsibility and National Reconciliation: The UN Truth Commission for East Timor, 95 Am. J. Int’l L. 952 (2001).
  • • Jonathan D. Tepperman, Truth and Consequences, Foreign Aff., Mar.-Apr. 2002, at 128.
  • Truth v. Justice: The Morality of Truth Commissions (Robert I. Rotberg & Dennis Thompson eds., 2000).
  • Desmond Mpilo Tutu, No Future Without Forgiveness (1997).
  • Desmond Mpilo Tutu, The Rainbow People of God: The Making of a Peaceful Revolution (1994).

T. EXILE

  • • Zachary D. Kaufman, The Future of Transitional Justice, 1 St. Antony’s Int’l Rev. 58, 64-65, 69-71 (2005).
  • • Zachary D. Kaufman, Op-Ed., Liberia: Charles Taylor’s Exile, Disappearance, Arrest, and Transfer, Liber. Times, May 20, 2006.
  • Mengistu Defends “Red Terror" BBC News (Dec. 28, 1999), http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/ africa/581098.stm.
  • U.S. Admits HelpingMengitsu Escape, BBC News (Dec. 22, 1999), http://news.bbc. co.uk/2/hi/africa/575405.stm.
  • • Tim Weiner & Lydia Polgreen, Under Pressure, Aristide Leaves Haiti, N.Y. Times, Feb. 29, 2004, at A1.

U. LUSTRATION

  • • Jon Lee Anderson, Out on the Street, New Yorker, Nov. 15, 2004, at 72.
  • • Erhard Blankenburg, The Purge of Lawyers After the Breakdown of the East German Communist Regime, 20 L. & Soc. Inquiry 223 (1995).
  • • Wolf Blitzer, From “de-Baathification” to “re-Baathification”?, CNN.com (Apr. 22, 2004), http://www.cnn.com/2004/US/04/22/Iraq.rebaathification/.
  • Tom Bower, Blind Eye to Murder: Britain, America and the Purging of Nazi Germany—A Pledge Betrayed (1981).
  • • Mark S. Ellis, Purging the Past: The Current State of Lustration Laws in the Former Communist Bloc, 59 Law & Contemp. Probs. 181 (1996).
  • Constantine FitzGibbon, Denazification (1969).
  • • Zachary D. Kaufman, The Future of Transitional Justice, 1 St. Antony’s Int’l Rev. 58, 68-69 (2005).
  • • Maria Los, Lustration and Truth Claims: Unfinished Revolutions in Central Europe, 20 L. & Soc. Inquiry 117 (1995).
  • • Eric Posner, Op-Ed., Bring Back the Baathists, N.Y. Times, Apr. 28, 2004, at A21.
  • • Eric Schmitt, U.S. Generals Fault Ban on Hussein’s Party, N.Y. Times, Apr. 20, 2004, at A11.
  • • Herman Schwartz, Lustration in Eastern Europe, in Transitional Justice: How Emerging Democracies Reckon with Former Regimes. Volume I: General Considerations 461 (Neil J. Kritz ed., 1995).
  • • Peter Siegelman, The Problems of Lustration: Prosecution of Wrongdoers by Democratic Successor Regimes, 20 L. & Soc. Inquiry 1 (1995).
  • • Arthur L. Stinchcombe, Lustration as a Problem of the Social Basis of Constitutionalism, 20 L. & Soc. Inquiry 245 (1995).

V. AMNESTY

  • • Roman Boed, The Effect of a Domestic Amnesty on the Ability of Foreign States to Prosecute Alleged Perpetrators of Serious Human Rights Violations, 33 Cornell Int’l L.J. 297 (2000).
  • • Charles Krauthammer, Op-Ed., Amnesty for Insurgents? Yes, Wash. Post, June 30, 2006, at A27.
  • • Robert J. Quinn, Will the Rule of Law End? Challenging Grants of Amnesty for the Human Rights Violations of a Prior Regime: Chile’s New Model, 62 Fordham L. Rev.
  • 905 (1993-1994).
  • • Naomi Roht-Arriaza & Lauren Gibson, The Developing Jurisprudence on Amnesty, 20 Hum. Rts. Q. 843 (1998).
  • • Michael P. Scharf, Swapping Amnesty for Peace: Was There a Duty to Prosecute International Crimes in Haiti?, 31 Tex. Int’l L.J. 1 (1996).

W. LETHAL FORCE

  • Robert B. Baer, The Perfect Kill: 21 Laws for Assassins (2014).
  • • Orna Ben-Naftali & Keren R. Michaeli, Justice-Ability: A Critique of the Alleged Nonjusticiability of Israel’s Policy of Targeted Killings, 1 J. Int’l Crim. Just. 368 (2003).
  • • Louis Rene Beres, On Assassination as Anticipatory Self-Defense: The Case of Israel, 20 Hofstra L. Rev. 321 (1991).
  • Bush Gives CIA License to Kill Terrorist Leaders, Chi. Trib., Dec. 15, 2002, at 19.
  • • Daniel Byman, Do Targeted Killings Work?, Foreign Aff., Mar.-Apr. 2006, at 95.
  • • Vincent Cannistraro, Assassination Is Wrong—And Dumb, Wash. Post, Aug. 30,
  • 2001, at A29.
  • James W. Clarke, American Assassins: The Darker Side of Politics (1982).
  • • Letter from Jonathan Fanton and Kenneth Roth, Hum. Rts. Watch, to President George W. Bush, U.S. Policy on Assassinations (Sept. 20, 2001), available at http:// www.hrw.org/press/2001/09/bushlet0920.htm.
  • • Michael L. Gross, Fighting by Other Means in the Mideast: A Critical Analysis of Israel’s Assassination Policy, 51 Pol. Stud. 350 (2003).
  • • Zachary D. Kaufman, The Future of Transitional Justice, 1 St. Antony’s Int’l Rev. 58, 68-69 (2005).
  • • Joseph B. Kelly, Assassination in Wartime, 30 Mil. L. Rev. 101 (1965).
  • • Martin Kettle, President “Ordered Murder” of Congo Leader, Guardian (United Kingdom), Aug. 9, 2000, http://www.theguardian.com/world/2000/aug/10/ martinkettle.
  • James F. Kirkham et al., Assassination and Political Violence: A Report of the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence
  • (2001).
  • Linda Laucella, Assassination: The Politics of Murder (1999).
  • • Jonathan Masters, Targeted Killings, Council on Foreign Relations, May 23, 2013, http://www.cfr.org/counterterrorism/targeted-killings/p9627.
  • • Scott Shane, Targeted Killing Comes to Define War on Terror, N.Y. Times, Apr. 8,
  • 2013, at A1.
  • • Daniel Statman, The Morality of Assassination: A Response to Gross, 51 Pol. Stud. 775 (2003).
  • Targeted Killings: Law and Morality in an Asymmetrical World (Claire Finkelstein et al. eds., 2012).
  • Michael Walzer, Arguing About War (2004).
  • Michael Walzer, Just and Unjust Wars: A Moral Argument with Historical Illustrations (4th ed. 2006).
  • • Patricia Zengel, Assassination and the Law of Armed Conflict, 134 Mil. L. Rev. 123
  • (1991).
  • • Micah Zenko, An Inconvenient Truth, Foreign Pol’y (Apr. 10, 2013), http://foreign- policy.com/2013/04/10/an-inconvenient-truth/.

X. INDEFINITE DETENTION

  • Karen Alonso, Korematsu v. United States: Japanese-American Internment Camps (1998).
  • Roger Daniels et al., Japanese Americans, From Relocation to Redress (rev. ed. 1991).
  • Fiona de Londras, Detention in the “War on Terror”: Can Human Rights Fight Back? (2011).
  • • Peter Finn & Anne E. Kornblut, Obama Allows Indefinite Detention, Wash. Post,

Mar. 8, 2011, at A1.

• Rachael Hanel, The Japanese American Internment (2008).

  • Colleen E. Hardy, The Detention of Unlawful Enemy Combatants During the War on Terror (2009).
  • Brian Masaru Hayashi, Democratizing the Enemy: The Japanese American Interment (2004).
  • Peter Irons, Justice at War: The Story of the Japanese American Internment Cases (1993).
  • Justice Delayed: The Record of the Japanese American Internment Cases (Peter Irons ed., 1989).
  • Joseph Margulies, Guantanamo and the Abuse of Presidential Power (2006).
  • Wendy L. Ng, Japanese American Internment During World War II (2002).
  • • Vincent-Joel Proulx, If That Hat Fits, Wear It, If That Turban Fits, Run for Your

Life: Reflections on the Indefinite Detention and Targeted Killing of Suspected Terrorists,

  • 56 Hastings L.J. 801 (2005).
  • Greg Robinson, By Order of the President: FDR and the Interment of Japanese Americans (2001).
  • • Carol Rosenberg, Why Obama Can’t Close Guantanamo, Foreign Aff. (Dec. 14,
  • 2011), https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/2011-12-14/why-obama-cant-close- guantanamo?cid=nlc-this_week_on_foreignaffairs_co-121511-why_obama_cant_ close_guantanam_3-121511.
  • Robert H. Wagstaff, Terror Detentions and the Rule of Law: US and UK Perspectives (2013).
  • Michi Weglyn, Years of Infamy: The Untold Story of America’s Concentration Camps (updated ed. 1996).
  • Benjamin Wittes, Detention and Denial: The Case for Candor After Guantanamo (2011).
  • • Benjamin Wittes & Jack Goldsmith, The Best Trial Option for KSM: Nothing, Wash. Post, Mar. 19, 2010, at A23.

Y. DEMOCRATIC PEACE THEORY

  • Debating the Democratic Peace (Michael E. Brown et al. eds., 1996).
  • • Michael W. Doyle, Kant, Liberal Legacies, and Foreign Affairs, 12 Phil. & Pub. Aff. 205 (1983).
  • • Michael W. Doyle, Kant, Liberal Legacies, and Foreign Affairs, Part 2, 16 Phil. & Pub. Aff. 323 (1983).
  • • Michael W. Doyle, Reflections on the Liberal Peace and Its Critics, 19 Int’l Security
  • 180 (1995).
  • Grasping the Democratic Peace: Principles for a Post-Cold War World (Bruce Russet ed., 1993).
  • Immanuel Kant, Perpetual Peace (1939).
  • • Christopher Layne, Kant or Cant: The Myth of the Democratic Peace, 19 Int’l Security 5 (1994).
  • • Christopher Layne, On the Democratic Peace, 19 Int’l Security 175 (1995).
  • • Edward D. Mansfield & Jack Snyder, Democratization and the Danger of War, 20 Int’l Security 5 (1995).
  • • Ido Oren, The Subjectivity of theDemocratic” Peace: Changing U.S. Perceptions of Imperial Germany, 20 Int’l Security 147 (1995).
  • • John M. Owen, How Liberalism Produces Democratic Peace, 19 Int’l Security 87 (1994)-
  • • David Spiro, The Insignificance of the Liberal Peace, 19 Int’l Security 50 (1994).

Z. FOREIGN POLICY ANALYSIS/U.S. FOREIGN POLICY

  • • Kenneth W. Abbott & Duncan Snidal, Why States Act Through Formal International Organizations, 42 J. Conflict Res. 3 (1998).
  • American Foreign Policy: Theoretical Essays (G. John Ikenberry ed., 5th ed. 2004).
  • W. Brian Arthur, Increasing Returns and Path Dependence in the Economy
  • (1994).
  • Mark Bowden, Black Hawk Down: A Story of Modern War (2000).
  • • Holly J. Burkhalter, The Question of Genocide: The Clinton Administration and Rwanda, 11 World Pol’y J. 44 (1994-1995).
  • • John P. Cerone, Dynamic Equilibrium: The Evolution of US Attitudes Toward International Criminal Courts and Tribunals, 18 Eur. J. Int’l L. 277 (2007).
  • • Chester A. Crocker, The Lessons of Somalia, Foreign Aff., May-June 1995, at 2.
  • • Mariano-Florentino Cuellar, The International Criminal Court and the Political Economy of Antitreaty Discourse, 55 Stan. L. Rev. 1597 (2003).
  • Morton Halperin et al., Bureaucratic Politics and Foreign Policy (1974).
  • • Oona Hathaway, Between Power and Principles: An Integrated Theory of International Law, 72 U. Chi. L. Rev. 469 (2005).
  • Robert Kagan, Of Paradise and Power: America and Europe in the New World Order (2003).
  • George F. Kennan, American Diplomacy (1984).
  • Yuen Foong Khong, Analogies at War: Korea, Munich, Dien Bien Phu, and the Vietnam Decisions of 1965 (1992).
  • • William Korey, The United States and the Genocide Convention: Leading Advocate and Leading Obstacle, 11 Ethics & Int’l Aff. 271 (1997).
  • • Stanley J. Liebowitz & Stephen E. Marolis, Path Dependence, Lock-In, and History, 11 J.L. Econ. & Org. 205 (1995).
  • Edward C. Luck, Mixed Messages: American Politics and International Organization, 1919-99 (1999).
  • • James Mahoney, Path Dependence in Historical Sociology, 29 Theory & Soc’y 507 (2000).
  • Multilateralism and U.S. Foreign Policy: Ambivalent Engagement (Stewart Patrick & Shepard Forman eds., 2002).
  • • Daryl Mundis, The United States of America and International Justice, 2 J. Int’l Crim. Just. 2 (2004).
  • • Sean D. Murphy, Contemporary Practice of the United States Relating to International Law, 93 Am. J. Int’l L. 161 (1993).
  • • Ethan A. Nadelmann, The Role of the United States in the International Enforcement of Criminal Law, 31 Harv. Int’l L.J. 37 (1990).
  • Joseph S. Nye, Jr., The Paradox of American Power: Why the World’s Only Superpower Can’t Go It Alone (2002).
  • • Paul Pierson, Increasing Returns, Path Dependence, and the Study of Politics, 94 Am. Pol. Sci. Rev. 251 (2000).
  • • Samantha Power, Bystanders to Genocide: Why the United States Let the Rwandan Tragedy Happen, Atl. Monthly, Sept. 2001, at 84.
  • • Samantha Power, Letter, Atl. Monthly, Dec. 2001, at 15.
  • Samantha Power, “A Problem from Hell”: America and the Age of Genocide
  • (2002) .
  • • W. Michael Reisman, Learning to Deal with Rejection: The International Criminal Court and the United States, 2 J. Int’l Crim. Just. 17 (2004).
  • • W. Michael Reisman, The United States and International Institutions, Survival, Winter 1999-2000, at 62.
  • • David J. Scheffer, Court Order, Foreign Aff., Nov.-Dec. 2001, at 201.
  • • David J. Scheffer, How to Turn the Tide Using the Rome Statute’s Temporal Jurisdiction,
  • 2 J. Int’l Crim. Just. 26 (2004).
  • • David J. Scheffer, Letter to the Editor, 95 Am. J. Int’l L. 624 (2001).
  • • David J. Scheffer, A Negotiator’s Perspective on the International Criminal Court, 167 Mil. L. Rev. 1 (2001).
  • David J. Scheffer, Special Report 78: Options for Prosecuting International Terrorists (2001), available at http://www.usip.org/publications/ options-prosecuting-international-terrorists.
  • • David J. Scheffer, Staying the Course with the International Criminal Court, 35 Cornell Int’l L.J. 47 (2001-2002).
  • • David J. Scheffer, The United States and the International Criminal Court, 93 Am.

J. Int’l L. 12 (1999).

  • • David J. Scheffer, The U.S. Perspective on the ICC, in The United States and the International Criminal Court: National Security and International Law 115 (Sarah B. Sewall & Carl Kaysen eds., 2000).
  • John Shattuck, Freedom on Fire: Human Rights Wars & America’s Response
  • (2003) .
  • • Natalie J. Sobchak, The Aftermath of Nuremberg ... The Problems of Suspected War Criminals in America, 6 N.Y.L. Sch. J. Hum. Rts. 425 (1989).
  • • Paul Stephan, US Constitutionalism and International Law: What the Multilateralist Move Leaves Out, 2 J. Int’l Crim. Just. 11 (2004).
  • The Sword and the Scales: The United States and International Courts and Tribunals (Cesare P.R. Romano ed., 2009).
  • Unilateralism and U.S. Foreign Policy: International Perspectives (Yuen Foong Khong & David M. Malone eds., 2003).
  • The United States and the International Criminal Court: National Security and International Law (Sarah B. Sewall & Carl Kaysen eds., 2000).
  • United States Hegemony and the Foundations of International Law (Michael Byers & Georg Nolte eds., 2003).
  • US Hegemony and International Organizations: The United States and Multilateral Institutions (Rosemary Foot et al. eds., 2003).
  • • Patricia M. Wald, Is the United States’ Opposition to the ICC Intractable?, 2 J. Int’l Crim. Just. 19 (2004).
  • • Ruth Wedgwood, Fiddling in Rome: America and the International Criminal Court, Foreign Aff., Nov.-Dec. 1998, at 20.
  • • Ruth Wedgwood, The International Criminal Court: An American View, 10 Eur.

J. Int’l L. 93 (1999).

• Mark S. Zaid, Will or Should the United States Ever Prosecute War Criminals?: A Need for Greater Expansion in the Areas of Both Criminal and Civil Liability, 35 New Eng. L. Rev. 447 (2001).

  • [1] For the sake of brevity, secondary sources appear in only one of these categories eventhough some of these sources could properly be listed in multiple such categories. Theselists of secondary sources are not meant to be exhaustive.
  • [2] Transcripts of personal interviews are on file with the author.
  • [3] Documents are on file with the author.
  • [4] An extensive bibliography on transitional justice is available at: Transitional JusticeBibliography, http://sites.google.com/site/transitionaljusticedatabase/transitional-justice-bibliography (last visited July 26, 2015).
 
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