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Notes

  • 1. ‘Sophia Dobson Collet’, Bamabodhini Patrika {Journal for the Enlightenment of Women], 353 (June 1894), pp. 53-59. My thanks to Sahana Bajpaie for this and other translations from the journal used in this article.
  • 2. D. Kopf, The Brahmo Samaj and the Shaping of the Modern World (New Delhi: Atlantic, 1996).
  • 3. S. D. Collet, The Life and Letters of Raja Rammohun Roy (London: Harold Collet, 1900).
  • 4. K. Gleadle, The Early Feminists. Radical Unitarians and the Emergence of the Women’s Rights Movement, 1831-51 (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1995); L. Schwartz, Infidel Feminism. Secularism, Religion and Women’s Emancipation, England 1830-1914 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2013).
  • 5. H.C. Sarkar, ed., Life and Letters of Raja Rammohun Roy by Sophia Dobson Collet (Calcutta: A.C. Sarkar at the B.M. Press, 1913). This edition also incorporated material from the work of another leader English Unitarian woman supporter of the Brahmo Samaj, Mary Carpenter’s Last Days in England of the Rajah Rammohun Roy (London, 1866).
  • 6. M. Sinha, Colonial Masculinity. The ‘manly Englishman’ and the ‘effeminate Bengali’ in the Late Nineteenth Century (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1995), p. 2.
  • 7. Kris Manjapra, ‘Introduction’, in S. Bose and K. Manjapra, eds., Cosmopolitan Thought Zones: South Asia and the Global Circulation of Ideas (2010), p. 1.
  • 8. For simplicity, I will in future refer to this complex network as the Brahmo- Unitarian connection.
  • 9. Letter from Lucy Aikin to William Ellery Channing Sept 6, 1831, printed in Memoirs, Miscellanies and Letters of the Late Lucy Aikin, ed. P.H. Le Breton (London: Longman & Co., 1864), p. 230 (italics in original). Sarkar quotes Aikin’s letter in his Introduction (p. lxxiv) to his 1913 edition of Collet’s Life and Letters.
  • 10. For discussion of missionary imperialism see, for example: S. Thorne, ‘Missionary-Imperial Feminism’, in M.T. Huber and N.C. Lutkehaus, eds., Gendered Missions. Women and Men in Missionary Discourse and Practice (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 199). pp. 39-66.
  • 11. Leela Gandhi, Affective Communities: Anticolonial Thought, fin-de-siecle Radicalism, and the Politics of Friendship (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2006), p. 10.
  • 12. P. Cheah and B. Robbins, eds., Cosmopolitics: Thinking and Feeling Beyond the Nation (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1998).
  • 13. See Sinha, Colonial Masculinity.
  • 14. Keshub Chunder Sen, ‘My Impressions of England’, in Writers Workshop, ed. Keshub Chunder Sen in England: Diaries, Sermons, Addresses and Epistles (Calcutta, 1980), p. 460.
  • 15. Bamabodhini Patrika, no. 353 (June 1894).
  • 16. H.C. Sarkar, ‘Sophia Dobson Collet, a Biographical Sketch’, in Sarkar, ed., Life and Letters of Raja Rammohun Roy, p. xxxii. Sarkar hoped to go on to write a full free-standing biography of Collet, but this project was never completed.
  • 17. Kathryn Gleadle, ‘Collet, Sophia Dobson (1822-1894)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford University Press, 2004) [http://www. oxforddnb.com/view/article/41272, accessed Oct 11, 2016].
  • 18. Sarkar, ‘Sophia Dobson Collet’, p. xxxi.
  • 19. Collet, ed., The Life and Letters, pp. 163-164; W.J. Fox, A Discourse on Occasion of the Death of Rajah Rammohun Roy (London, 1833).
  • 20. Sarkar, ‘Sophia Dobson Collet’, p. x.
  • 21. Her detailed notes of Fox’s sermons of 1841-45 are quoted in R. Garnett and E. Garnett, The Life of W.J. Fox, Public Teacher and Social Reformer 1786-1864. (London and New York: John Lane, 1910), pp. 223-229.
  • 22. See Gleadle, The Early Feminists p. 18 for the influence of American Transcendentalists on English Unitarians. While some of those influenced by Transcendentalism moved beyond the Christian Unitarian fold, others remained within it.
  • 23. Moncure D. Conway, Autobiography: Memories and Experiences, Vol. 2 (London: Cassell & Co., 1904), p. 39; T. F. Wright, ed., The Cosmopolitan Lyceum. Lecture Culture and the Globe in Nineteenth- Century America (Amherst and Boston: University of Massachusetts Press, 2013).
  • 24. Schwartz, Infidel Feminism, pp. 57-58.
  • 25. Letter from S.D. Collet to her aunt Mary (undated), Collet Papers, ref: 7CCF/survey/12.2.4. See also letter from theist F.W. Newman to S.D. Collet, July 26, 1849 on his opposition to pantheism. Collet’s friend Sara Hennell, another former Unitarian, also identified herself publicly as a pantheist at this time. See Schwarz Infidel Feminism, pp. 56, 115-116.
  • 26. S.D. Collet, ‘An Intellectual Diary’ (1857), hand-written diary, entry for March 16th, Collet Papers, ref: 7CCF/12.2.7.
  • 27. Ibid.
  • 28. Letter from S.D. Collet to M. Estlin, Oct 5, 1885, Collet Papers, ref: 7CCF/11.3.
  • 29. Conway, Autobiography: Memories and Experiences, Vol. 2, p. 39; Gleadle, ‘Collet, Sophia Dobson’.
  • 30. See Gleadle, The First Feminists, p. 59 for the close links between Unitarianism and Broad Church Anglicanism at this time.
  • 31. Letters from F.P. Cobbe to S.D. Collet, March 1 1861 and April 11 1861, Collet Papers, ref: 7CCF/11.7; letters from F.W. Newman to S.D. Collet, Feb 7 1863, March 2, 1863, July 3, 1864, Dec 7, 1867, Collet Papers, ref: 7CCF/survey/12.2.6.
  • 32. Bamabodhini Patrika, 5:72 (Aug-Sept 1869), pp. 76-77.
  • 33. ‘Bilatiyo Shongbad’ [News from England], Bamabodhini Patrika,6, 87, (Oct-Nov1870), pp. 210-211.
  • 34. C. Hall, ‘Missionary Stories: Gender and Ethnicity in England in the 1830s and 1840s’, in C. Hall, ed., White Male and Middle Class. Explorations of Feminism and History (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1992), pp. 205-254.
  • 35. Letter from S.D. Collet to M. Estlin, April 7, 1886, Collet Papers, ref: 7CCF/11.3.
  • 36. Ibid.
  • 37. Collet, ‘An Intellectual Diary’, March 5th, 1857.
  • 38. Ibid. Aug.12th, 1857.
  • 39. Sarkar, ‘Sophia Dobson Collet’, p. xv.
  • 40. Letter from Keshub Chunder Sen to S.D. Collet, 18 Dec 1874, Collet Papers, ref: 7CCF/11.5.
  • 41. ‘Bilatiyo Shongbad’ [News from England], pp. 210-211.
  • 42. Sarkar, ‘Sophia Dobson Collet’, p. xxxii.
  • 43. ibid. p. xxxii.
  • 44. Clare Midgley, ‘Indian feminist Pandita Ramabai and Transnational Liberal Religious Networks in the Nineteenth-Century World’, in Clare Midgley, Alison Twells and Julie Carlier, eds., Women in Transnational History: Connecting the Local and the Global (London: Routledge, 2016), pp. 13-33.
  • 45. Sophia Dobson Collet, George Jacob Holyoake and Modern Atheism. A Biographical and Critical Essay (London: Trubner & Co, 1855), p. 42.
  • 46. Sophia Dobson Collet, Indian Theism and its Relation to Christianity (London: Strahan & Co., 1870).
  • 47. ibid., p.29.
  • 48. Ibid., p. 31.
  • 49. Sophia Dobson Collet, An Historical Sketch of the Brahmo Samaj (2nd ed., Calcutta: Navavidhan Publication Committee, 1940) [reproduction of original 1st ed., Calcutta: Calcutta Central Press Company, 1873)],Preface, p.u.
  • 50. Ibid., p.46.
  • 51. S.D. Collet, ed., Keshub Chunder Sen’s English Visit (London: Strahan & Co., 1871).
  • 52. S.D. Collet, ed., The Brahmo Year-Book for 1876 (London and Edinburgh: Williams and Norgate, 1876), Preface, p. 8.
  • 53. S.D. Collet, ed., The Brahmo Year- Book for 1877 (London and Edinburgh: Williams and Norgate, 1877), Preface, pp. 5, 6.
  • 54. Letter from W.H. Channing to S.D. Collet, Feb 27, 1877, Collet Papers, ref: 7CCF/survey/12.2.4.
  • 55. S.D. Collet, ed., The Brahmo Year-Book for 1881 (London and Edinburgh: Williams and Norgate, 1882), pp. 139-140.
  • 56. S.D. Collet, ed., The Brahmo Year-Book for 1881 p.25.
  • 57. S.D. Collet, ed., The Brahmo Year-Book for 1882 (London and Edinburgh: Williams and Norgate, 1883), pp. 81-84.
  • 58. Eventually published as S. Sastri, History of the Brahmo Samaj, 2 vols. (Calcutta: Sadharan Brahmo Samaj, 1911, 1912) it drew on Collet’s own publications. See opening of Preface to Vol. 1 for acknowledgement of Collet’s role in urging Sastri to write the book.
  • 59. Nagendar Nath Chatterji, Mahatma Raja Rammohan Rayer Jibancharita [Life of the illustrious Raja Ram Mohan Roy] (Calcutta: Roy Press, 1881); review of book by S.D. Collet in Collet, ed., The Brahmo Year-Book for 1882, p. 74.
  • 60. Sarkar, ‘Sophia Dobson Collet’, p. xxx.
  • 61. Collet, The Life and Letters, p. 165.
  • 62. Ibid. pp. 3, 7, 10. It is important to exercise caution in using the text of the published biography as a whole as a source for understanding Collet’s perspectives on Roy’s religious beliefs. Only the first quarter of the published work is in her own words. My discussion here focuses on the parts of the book written by Collet herself.
  • 63. Ibid., pp. 17-18, 23.
  • 64. Reasoner, 4:91 (1848), pp. 175-176; Collet, George Jacob Holyoake, pp. 4243, as discussed in Schwartz, Infidel Feminism, p. 58; see also pp. 116-117.
  • 65. Collet, The Life and Letters, p. 33.
  • 66. Collet, ed., The Brahmo Year-Book for 1876, pp. 48-49.
  • 67. Her letter was published in Bamabodhini Patrika, 9, 124, Nov-Dec 1873, pp. 258-260 with a note introducing Collet to its readers as a leading English supporter of the Brahmo Samaj, and praising her efforts to learn Bengali.
  • 68. Clare Midgley, ‘Liberal Religion and the ‘Woman Question’ between East and West: Perspectives from a Nineteenth-Century Bengali Women’s Journal’, Gender & History, 25, 3 (2013), pp. 443-458.
  • 69. Brahmo Marriages. Their Past History and Present Position (London: Strachan & Co, 1871). I have been unable to track down a copy of this pamphlet.
  • 70. Collet, ed., The Brahmo Year-Book for 1878, pp. 15, 17.
  • 71. Ibid., p. 18.
  • 72. S.D, Collet, ed., The Brahmo Year-Book for 1880 (London and Edinburgh: Williams and Norgate, 1880), p. 19.
  • 73. Letters from S.D. Collet to M. Estlin, Dec 21, 1885; Dec 31, 1885; Jan 6, 1886, April 27,1886, Aug 31,1885; 6th Sept 1885; 7th Sept 1885; 12 Sept 1885; 19 Sept. 1885; 1 Dec. 1885; Dec 12, 1885, Jan 7, 1886, Jan 19, 1886, Feb 14, 1887, Aug 16, 1887, Collet Papers, ref: 7CCF/11.3.
  • 74. Ibid., Sept 7, 1885.
  • 75. John Stevens, ‘Marriage, Duty and Civilization: Keshab Chandra Sen and the Cuch Bihar Controversy in Metropolitan and Colonial Context’, South Asian History and Culture (2016) DOI: 10.1080/19472498.2016.1223720.
  • 76. Elleke Boehmer, Empire, the National, and the Postcolonial 1890-1920. Resistance in Interaction (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), p. 17.
 
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