Desktop version

Home arrow Sociology arrow Cosmopolitan Lives on the Cusp of Empire: Interfaith, Cross-Cultural and Transnational Networks, 1860-1950

Conclusion

Robert Gregory has written of the costs of Polak’s dedication to Indian peoples:

To champion the welfare of a foreign people against the interests of one’s own people, among whom he must continue to live, requires a high degree of imagination, sympathy, dedication, and sacrifice.126

Polak was a man who did not understand ‘insularity’ and felt ‘as much “at home”, so to speak, “abroad”, as I was in the land of my birth’.127 For Polak, Indian peoples and, indeed, humanity in general were his concern; he saw them equally as sparks ‘from an emanation of the Universal self’. His fellow feelings were not confined to the British, but extended globally.

Notes

  • 1. Little has been published on Polak, but see Robert G. Gregory, ‘H.S.L. Polak and the Indian Overseas Association’, Vivekananda Kendra Patrika (Madras) February 1973, pp.33-38, Thomas Weber, Gandhi as Disciple and Mentor (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), pp. 54-68, Isobel Hofmeyr, Gandhi’s Printing Press (Cambridge, MA.: Harvard University Press, 2013).
  • 2. Leela Gandhi, Affective Communities: Anticolonial Thought, Fin-de-Siecle Radicalism, and the Politics of Friendship (Durham and London: Duke University Press, 2006), p. 7.
  • 3. Marilyn Lake and Henry Reynolds, Drawing the Global Colour Line (Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, 2008).
  • 4. Gandhi, Affective Communities, p. 3.
  • 5. Paul Gilroy, Postcolonial Melancholia (New York: Columbia University Press, 2005), p. 67.
  • 6. Henry Solomon Leon Polak papers (Polak papers), Asian and African collection, British Library. Mss Eur D1238/3.
  • 7. Ibid.
  • 8. Ibid.
  • 9. JonathanSchneer, London 1900 The Imperial Metropolis (Yale and London: Yale University Press, 2001), p. 162.
  • 10. Polak papers, Mss Eur D1238/3.
  • 11. Gregory, ‘H.S.L. Polak’, p. 34.
  • 12. ‘Polak Death’, Jewish Chronicle, 6 February 1959, p. 12.
  • 13. Polak papers, Mss Eur D1238/3.
  • 14. Ibid.
  • 15. Ibid.
  • 16. Ibid.
  • 17. Henry S.L. Polak, ‘Indian National Congress’, Indian Review, January, 1912, p. 94.
  • 18. Ken Weller, Don’t Be a Soldier: The Radical Anti-war Movement in North London, 1914-1918 (London: Journeyman Press, 1985) pp. 85-86.
  • 19. Polak papers, Mss Eur D1238/3.
  • 20. Ibid.
  • 21. Ibid.
  • 22. Ibid, Mss Eur D1238/6.
  • 23. Ibid, Mss Eur D1238/3.
  • 24. R. J. Holton, ‘Cosmopolitanism or Cosmopolitanisms: The Universal Races Congress of 1911’ Global Networks,2, 2(2002), p. 165.
  • 25. The papers of Henry Salomon Leon Polak (PP), MSS. Brit. Emp. s. 372/2, Bodleian Libraries Special Collections, University of Oxford.
  • 26. H.S.L. Polak to M.K Gandhi, 23 November 1939 at http://gandhiking.ning. com/profiles/blogs/letter-from-h-s-l-polak-november-23-1939-1, accessed 3 December 2013.
  • 27. H.S.L. Polak, ‘Brotherhood and War’, in S. Durai Raja Singam, (eds) H.S.L. Polak - Friend of Gandhiji (Singapore: self-published, 1957), p. 54.
  • 28. H.S.L. Polak, ‘Racial Brotherhood’ Hitavada (Nagpur) 1951 in Singam, p. 70.
  • 29. Polak Papers, Mss.D Eur 1238/1,See World Conference for International Peace through Religion, (1937) at http://www.peacepalacelibrary.nl/ pmfiles/P04-1-39-040.pdf.
  • 30. Singam, H.S.L. Polak, pp. 74-75.
  • 31. Polak papers, Mss Eur D1238/6.
  • 32. Ibid, Mss Eur D1238/3.
  • 33. Hugh Tinker, A New System of Slavery: The Export of Indian Labour Overseas, 1830-1920, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1974).
  • 34. Lake and Reynolds, Drawing the Global Colour Line, pp. 210ff.
  • 35. Ibid, passim.
  • 36. Gregory, ‘H.S.L. Polak’, p. 34.
  • 37. S.L. (sic) Polak, ‘The Origins of Gandhiji’s Fasts’, India Bulletin October 1932, in Singam, pp. 43-44.
  • 38. M.K. Gandhi, An Autobiography or The Story of My Experiments with Truth (Ahmedabad: Navajivan, 2005 (1927)), p. 275.
  • 39. Ibid, p.273.
  • 40. Quoted in Weber, Gandhi, p. 56.
  • 41. Polak papers, Mss Eur D1238/3.
  • 42. Gandhi, An Autobiography, p. 283.
  • 43. PP, MSS Brit. Emp.s372/1/223.
  • 44. Gandhi, An Autobiography, p. 283.
  • 45. Robert A. Huttenback, Gandhi in South Africa: British Imperialism and the Indian Question, 1860-1914 (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1971).
  • 46. Uma Dhupelia-Mesthrie, Gandhi’s Prisoner? The Life of Gandhi’s Son Manilal (Delhi: Permanent Black, 2004), p. 76.
  • 47. Uma Mesthrie, ‘From Advocacy to Mobilization, Indian Opinion, 19031914’ in Switzer Leo, (ed) South Africa’s Alternative Press: Voices of Protest and Resistance, 1880s-1960s (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997), p.116.
  • 48. Weber, Gandhi, p. 63.
  • 49. Mesthrie, ‘From Advocacy’, p. 116.
  • 50. Weber, Gandhi, p. 59.
  • 51. Kris, Manjapra, ‘Introduction’ in Sugata Bose and Kris Manjapra, (eds) Cosmopolitan Thought Zones, South Asia and the Global Circulation of Ideas (London: Palgrave MacMillan, 2010), p. 3.
  • 52. Millie Graham Polak, 1931 Mr. Gandhi: The Man, Compiled by C.F. Andrews accessed at http://www.mkgandhi.org/ebks/gandhitheman.pdf 21 July 2016, p. 117.
  • 53. Polak papers, Mss Eur D1238/6.
  • 54. Mesthrie, ‘From Advocacy’, p.112.
  • 55. Hofmyer, Gandhi’s Printing Press, pp.5, 20.
  • 56. Ibid, p. 72.
  • 57. Ibid.
  • 58. Ibid, p.74.
  • 59. Polak, H.S.L., ‘Memories of Gandhi’, Contemporary Review, 173, January 1948, p. 135.
  • 60. Hofmyer, Gandhi’s Printing Press, p.117.
  • 61. Anil Nauriya, ‘Freedom, Race and Francophonie: Gandhi and the Construction of Peoplehood’, Identity, Culture and Politics10, 2, 2009,

p. 80.

62. PP, MSS. Brit. Emp. s.372/1/60-76.

  • 63. (Madras: Natesan, 1909).
  • 64. Ibid.
  • 65. Collected Works Mahatma Gandhi, (CWMG) 98 volumes at http://www. gandhiserve.org/e/cwmg/cwmg.htm accessed 11 September 2016, vol.11, p. 120.
  • 66. ‘First Universal Races Congress’, International Journal of Ethics, 21, 2 January 1911, p. 248.
  • 67. Holton, ‘Cosmopolitanism’, pp. 153-170.
  • 68. Lake and Reynolds, Drawing the Global Colour Line, p. 254.
  • 69. PP, MSS. Brit. Emp. s.372/1/119-121.
  • 70. Polak papers, Mss Eur 1238/1.
  • 71. PP, MSS. Brit. Emp. s.372/2/4-6, Weber, Gandhi, p. 66.
  • 72. Polak quoted in Thomas Weber, Going Native Gandhi’s Relationship with Western Women (New Delhi: Roli Books, 2011), p. 162.
  • 73. Dhupelia-Mesthrie, Gandhi’s Prisoner?, p. 129.
  • 74. PP, MSS. Brit. Emp. s.372/2/58-61.
  • 75. Henry S.L. Polak, ‘Wasted Opportunities in India’ Contemporary Review 1934, January, p. 542.
  • 76. Ibid, pp. 540-541.
  • 77. Polak quoted in Singam, H.S.L. Polak, p.1.
  • 78. Polak Papers, Mss D Eur 1238/1/5.
  • 79. H.S.L. Polak, ‘The South African Situation’ Indian Review (Madras) May 1919, pp. 305-308.
  • 80. Mesthrie, From Advocacy, p. 121, Nauriya, ‘Freedom, Race’, p. 79.
  • 81. Weber, Gandhi, p. 54.
  • 82. H. S. L. Polak, ‘G. A. N. - Some Happy Memories’, Indian Review, LI, 1, 1950 p.37.
  • 83. CWMG, vol. 9, p. 434.
  • 84. Polak, ‘G. A. N.’, p.37.
  • 85. Ibid, p.38.
  • 86. Ibid.
  • 87. CWMG, vol.8,p. 211.
  • 88. Ibid, vol. 11, p.244.
  • 89. Ibid, vol. 9, p. 405 and vol. 36, pp. 129-130.
  • 90. Ibid, vol. 17, p. 183.
  • 91. Weber, Gandhi, p. 61.
  • 92. Gandhi, An Autobiography, p. 320.
  • 93. Polak to Gandhi, 23 November 1939.
  • 94. PP, MSS. Brit. Emp. s.372/3/36.
  • 95. CWMG, vol. 48, p. 286.
  • 96. Polak to Gandhi, 23 November 1939.
  • 97. CWMG, vol. 85,p.55.
  • 98. M.K. Gandhi, Speeches and Writings of M.K. Gandhi with an introduction by C.F. Andrews; a tribute by G.A. Natesan; a biographical sketch by H.S.L. Polak (Madras: Natesan, 1910).
  • 99. Singam, H.S.L. Polak, p. 2.
  • 100. Polak papers, Mss Eur D1238/6.
  • 101. Sahadeo Basdeo and Brinsley Samaroo, ‘Indo-Caribbean Political Leaders during the Twentieth Century’ in Parvati Raghuram, Ajaya Kumar Sahoo, Brij Maharaj and Dave Sangha, (eds) Tracing an Indian Diaspora: Contexts, Memories, Representations (New Delhi: Sage, 2008), pp. 113-14.
  • 102. Anil Nauriya, ‘The Clemency Effort for Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru A Comment’, 2012 at https://www.academia.edu/4888156/The_ Clemency_Effort_for_Bhagat_Singh_Sukhdev_and_Rajguru accessed 17 July 2016, n.iii.
  • 103. ‘Privy Council Appeals’, Sydney Morning Herald, 6 December 1919, p.13.
  • 104. Gregory, ‘H.S.L. Polak’, p. 38.
  • 105. Ibid.
  • 106. Henry S.L. Polak, ‘Indians (sic) Overseas Association’, Indian Review, March 1920, p. 212.
  • 107. Quoted in Robert G. Gregory, India and East Africa A History of Race Relations Within the British Empire1890-1939 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1971), p. 238.
  • 108. Nandini Chatterjee, ‘The Political Theology of Indian Christian Citizenship: An Instance of Secularism as Culture’, in B. Black, G. Hyman, and G. Smith, (eds) Confronting Secularism in Europe and India: Legitimacy and Disenchantment in Contemporary Times (London: Bloomsbury, 2014), p. 90.
  • 109. Polak papers, Mss Eur D1238/6.
  • 110. See Raju Ramachandran ‘Barry Sen, Counsel’s Counsel’, The Wire, 9 November 2015, at http://thewire.in/15255/barry-sen-counsels-coun sel/accessed 15 July 2016.
  • 111. Geoffrey Carnall, Gandhi’s Interpreter: A Life of Horace Alexander (Edinburgh, 2010), p. 102.
  • 112. PP, MSS. Brit. Emp. s.372/2/3.
  • 113. Ashwin Desai and Goolam Vahed, Gandhi The South African Stretcher Bearer of Empire (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2015).
  • 114. Quoted in Ibid, p. 82.
  • 115. PP, MSS. Brit. Emp. s.372/1/226.
  • 116. Holton, ‘Cosmopolitanism’, p. 165.
  • 117. Hofmyer, Gandhi’s Printing Press, Anil Nauriya, The African Element in Gandhi (Delhi: National Gandhi Museum and Gyan Publishing House, 2006) at http://www.mkgandhi.org/ebks/The-African-Element-in- Gandhi.pdf accessed 28 July 2016, n.p.
  • 118. Gregory, India and East Africa, p. 175.
  • 119. Ibid, p. 237.
  • 120. Desai and Vahed, Gandhi, p.83.
  • 121. CWMG, vol. 10,p.121.
  • 122. PP, MSS. Brit. Emp. s. 372/2/61ff.
  • 123. Ibid. s.372/2/52.
  • 124. Ibid. s.372/2/59-60.
  • 125. Singam, H.S.L. Polak p. 1.
  • 126. Gregory, ‘H.S.L. Polak’, p. 33.
  • 127. Polak papers, Mss Eur D1238/3.
 
Source
< Prev   CONTENTS   Source   Next >