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Home arrow Sociology arrow Cosmopolitan Lives on the Cusp of Empire: Interfaith, Cross-Cultural and Transnational Networks, 1860-1950


  • 1. Madeleine Herren, Martin Ruesch and Christiane Sibille, Transcultural History: Theories, Methods, Sources (Springer, Heidelberg, 2012): Part I.
  • 2. Tomoko Akami, Internationalizing the Pacific: The United States, Japan and the Institute of Pacific Relations in War and Peace, 1919-45 (Routledge, London, 2002): 85-86; C.A. Bayly, Recovering Liberties: Indian Thought in the Age of Liberalism and Empire (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2011): ch 9.
  • 3. Ritu Birla, ‘Capitalist Subjects in Transition’, in Dipesh Chakrabarty et al. (eds), From the Colonial to the Postcolonial: India and Pakistan in Transition (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2007): 252.
  • 4. CA Bayly, ‘The Ends of Liberalism and the Political Thought of Nehru’s India’, Modern Intellectual History, 12:3 (2015): 605-626.
  • 5. Tamsin Pietch, Empire of Scholars: Universities, Networks and the British Academic World 1850 to 1939 (Manchester University Press, 2013): 450. See also Clare Midgley,

‘Indian Feminist Pandita Ramabai and Transnational Liberal Religious Networks in the Nineteenth-Century World’, in Midgley et al. (eds), Women in Transnational History: Connecting the Local and the Global (Routledge, London, 2016): 13-32.

  • 6. Jeffrey Cox, Imperial Fault Lines: Christianity and Colonial Power in India, 1818-1940 (Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA, 2002); on the British Left, see Stephen Howe, Anticolonialism in British Politics: The Left and the End of Empire, 1918-1964 (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1993).
  • 7. Mark Ravinder Frost, ‘In Search of Cosmopolitan Discourse: A Historical Journey Across the Indian Ocean from Singapore to South Africa, 18701920’, in Pamila Gupta et al. (eds), Eyes Across the Water: Navigating the Indian Ocean (Unisa Press, Pretoria, 2010): 79-80.
  • 8. Marilyn Lake, ‘Chinese Warnings and White Men’s Prophesies’, in Kirsty Reid and Fiona Paisley (eds), Critical Perspectives on Colonialism: Writing the Empire from Below (Routledge, New York, 2014): 46-57.
  • 9. Marilyn Lake and Henry Reynolds, Drawing the Global Colour Line: White Men’s Countries and the Question of Racial Equality (Melbourne University Press, Melbourne, 2008): 186-187.
  • 10. Julie McLeod and Fiona Paisley, ‘The Modernization of Colonialism and the Educability of the “Native”: Transpacific Knowledge Networks and Education in the Interwar Years’, History of Education Quarterly, 56:3 (2016): 473-502.
  • 11. ‘A Critique of Some Assumptions’, S. Kodanda Rao, The Servants of India. Education in Pacific Countries, 301-304; quotations on 303 and 304. Proceedings, Vol 2. Institute of Education Library, London. Emphasis in original.
  • 12. ‘Sastri’s Sophistry’, Truth 2 July 1922: 6; ‘Mr Sastri’s Visit’, Queenslander 1 July 1922: 9.
  • 13. Meg Samuelson, ‘A Community of Letters on the Indian Ocean Rim: Friendship, Fraternity and (Af-filial) Love’, English in Africa 35:1 (2008): 29. See also Alison Bashford, ‘Immigration Restriction: Rethinking Period and Place from Settler Colonies to Postcolonial Nations’, Journal of Global History 9 (2014): 26-48.
  • 14. Woollacott, To Try her Fortune in London: Australian Women, Colonialism, and Modernity (Oxford University Press, 2001): 122-123.
  • 15. ‘Indians in Australia. Greatly Improved Status’, Courier-Mail, 17 November 1936, 17; and ‘Discriminations Against Indians Here and in W.A.: Visitor Investigating Position’, The Telegraph, 17 November 1936, 11.
  • 16. Felix Keesing to Rao, 8 March 1938. Folder 5, ‘February 1938-June 1938’. Felix Keesing Papers. Special Collections. University of Hawaii, Manoa (hereafter UHM).
  • 17. Samuelson, ‘A Community of Letters’: 305.
  • 18. Mrinalini Sinha, ‘Suffragism and Internationalism: The Enfranchisement of British and Indian Women Under an Imperial State’, The Indian Economic and Social History Review 36:4 (1999): 461-484; and Sinha, Specters of Mother India: The Global Restructuring of an Empire (Duke University Press, Durham, 2006).
  • 19. Fiona Paisley, Loving Protection? Australian Feminism and Aboriginal Women’s Rights, 1919-1939 (Melbourne University Press, Melbourne, 2000).
  • 20. Paisley, Glamour in the Pacific.
  • 21. On women missionaries in India at the ‘cutting edge’ of modernity, see Margaret Allen ‘“That’s the Modern Girl”: Missionary Women and Modernity in Kolkata, c.1907-c1940’, Itinerario XXIV:3 (2010): 83-96.
  • 22. Jill Roe, ‘A Shadowy Figure? Bessie Rischbieth, Theosophic Feminist’, Australian Cultural History 23 (2004): 79-95; and Roe, Beyond Belief: Theosophy in Australia 1879-1939 (New South Wales University Press, c1986). See also Frank Bongiorno, ‘In this World and the Next: Modernity and Unorthodox Religion in Australia, 1880-1930’, Australian Cultural History 25 (2006): 179-207. And see Kumari Jayawardena, The White Woman’s Other Burden: Western Women and South Asia during British Rule (Routledge, London, 1995). See also, Alison Mackinnon, ‘Knowledge Beyond Reason: Highly Educated Women and the Continuing Quest for Commensurability’, Australian Cultural History 23 (2004): 59-78; and Angela Woollacott, ‘From Moral to Professional Authority: Secularism, Social Work and Middle-Class Women’s Self-Construction in World War 1 Britain’, Journal of Women’s History 10 (1998): 85-111.
  • 23. ‘India Women’s Conference’. Printed Flyer. MS 2004/11/562, Rischbieth Papers, National Library of Australia (hereafter BRP).
  • 24. ‘Mahatma Gandhi: A World Figure’, dated 1930. Hand written notes, several pages. Ms 2004/11/572, BRP.
  • 25. Antoinette Burton, Dwelling in the Archive: Women Writing House, Home and History in Late Colonial India (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2003);Catherine Candy, ‘Competing Transnational Representations of the 1930s Indian Franchise Question’, in Ian Christopher et al. (eds), Women’s

Suffrage in the British Empire: Citizenship, Nation, and Race (Routledge, London, 2000): 191-206; Leila Rupp, Worlds of Women: The Making of an International Women’s Movement(Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1997); Angela Woollacott, ‘Australian Women’s Metropolitan Activism: From Suffrage, to Imperial Vanguard, to Commonwealth Feminism’, in Fletcher et al. (eds), Women’s Suffrage in the British Empire, 207-223; Woollacott, To Try Her Fortune, 122ff; and Marie Sandell, The Rise of Women’s Transnational Activism: Identity and Sisterhood Between the World Wars (IB Tauris, London, 2015): Chapter 7.

  • 26. Jus Suffragi 16:10 July 1922, Supplement, p.1.
  • 27. Jus Suffragi, 23:2 November, 18, and 23:3 December, 36. It would not be until 1952, however, that the All-India Women’s Association sent a delegate to the PPWA. See Paisley, Glamour in the Pacific, 76 ff.
  • 28. E.C. Carter to Frederick Whyte, 2 March 1927. E.C. Carter File, 6/4/12. Royal Institute of International Affairs Papers. Chatham House, London. Carter would lead the IPR into controversial waters in the 1930s and was later denounced as a radical. See Alan Roucher, ‘The First Foreign Think Tanks’, American Quarterly 30:4 (1978): 499.
  • 29. SKDatta, The Desire of India (Church Missionary Society, London, 1908).
  • 30. William Richey Hogg, Ecumenical Foundations: A History of the International Missionary Council and its Nineteenth-Century Background (Harper & Brothers, Publishers, New York, 1952): 177.
  • 31. Margaret Allen, ‘“A Fine Type of Hindoo” Meets “the Australian type”: British Indians in Australia and Diverse Masculinities’, in Desley Deacon et al. (eds), Transnational Ties: Australian Lives in the World (ANU E Press, Canberra, 2008): fn 22.
  • 32. Hogg, Ecumenical Foundations, 245.
  • 33. John L. Mott, ‘At Edinburgh, Jerusalem, and Madras’, International Review of Missions 27:3 (1938): 304.
  • 34. Jack Priestley, ‘A New ERA - Beginning from Jerusalem? Some Reflections from 1928 on Matters Pertaining to 1988’, British Journal of Religious Education 13:3 (1991): 143-151; and Peter Kallaway, ‘Education, Health and Social Welfare in the Late Colonial Context: The International Missionary Council and Educational Transition in the Interwar Years with Specific Reference to Colonial Africa’, History of Education, 38:2 (2009): 217-246.
  • 35. ‘Dr Datta’s Position’, West Australian Saturday 2 June, 1923, p. 8.
  • 36. ‘The YWCA’, The Pioneer Mail, 31 December 1920, p. 35.
  • 37. ‘All India Women’s Conference Sessions’, Folder 11A 9668. United Nations Archives, Geneva.
  • 38. ‘Address by Merle Davis at the Opening Session’, 5. B-3/6 Conferences - Kyoto 1929 - Proceedings #6. IPR Papers, UHM.
  • 39. ‘Address by Merle Davis’, 6. Ibid.
  • 40. Circulated by Dr G. A. Johnston Ross, an ecumenical preacher at Vassar in the United States. Ross preached Christianity as a social force in real life. See ‘Sermon by the Reverend G.A. Johnston Ross’, The Vassar Miscellany News IV: 47, 24 April 1920: 7.
  • 41. ‘A letter from Rabindranath Tagore. For private circulation only. (By courtesy of Dr. G. A. Johnston Ross) Institute of Pacific Relations Second Session - 1927’, typed sheet, no date. IPR B-2/1, Conferences - Honolulu 1927 - Proceedings #7. UHM.
  • 42. Campbell, Chinese Coolie Emigration to Countries Within the British Empire (P.S. King and Son Ltd., London, 1923): xvii.
  • 43. David Cannadine, ‘The Present and the Past in the English Industrial Revolution 1880-1980’, Past and Present 103 (1984): 131-172.
  • 44. Waqar Zaidi, ‘Liberal Internationalist Approaches to Science and Technology in Interwar Britain and the United States’, in Daniel Laqua (ed), Internationalism Reconfigured: Transnational Ideas and Movements Between the World Wars (I.B. Tauris, London, 2011): 22-24.
  • 45. J.B.Condliffe, The Third Mediterranean in History: An Introduction to Pacific Problems with an introduction by John R. Mott (Student Christian Movement, New Zealand, 1926): 11.
  • 46. ‘The Third Biennial Conference of the Institute of Pacific Relations, Kyoto, Japan’, 12. IPRB-3/1, Conferences - Kyoto 1929 - Proceedings #1, IPR Papers. UHM.
  • 47. Sarah Paddle, ‘“For the China of the Future”: Western Feminists, Colonisation and International Citizenship in China in the Interwar Years’, Australian Feminist Studies 16:6 (2001): 325-341; and Paddle, ‘The Limits of Sympathy: International Feminists and the Chinese “slave girl” Campaigns of the 1920s and 1930s’, Journal of Colonialism and Colonial History 4:3 (2003): 1-28.
  • 48. ‘Oriental Industry. Welfare Work in China. Interesting Address by Miss Hinder’, The Maitland Daily Mercury (Newcastle), 28 March 1925: 6.
  • 49. Loy-Wilson, ‘“Liberating” Asia’, 96.
  • 50. ‘Industrialization Report’, 30 and 31 October 1929, 2. B-3/10 Conferences-Kyoto1929 - Proceedings #10, IPR Papers. UHM.
  • 51. ‘Industrialization Report’, 31 October 1929, CHECK. B-3/10 Conferences-Kyoto1929 - Proceedings #10, IPR Papers. UHM.
  • 52. Rev A.J. Brace, ‘An Adventure in Friendship’, The West China Missionary News, n.d., 33. Press clipping. B-4/8 - Kyoto Articles/Press Releases #2. IPR Papers. UHM.
  • 53. Ibid, 33 and 34.
  • 54. ‘Industrialization Report’, 30 and 31 October 1929, 2-3. B-3/10 Conferences-Kyoto1929 - Proceedings #10, IPR Papers. UHM.

55. ‘Industrialization Report’, 30 and 31October 1929, 3. B-3/10

Conferences-Kyoto1929 - Proceedings #10, IPR Papers. UHM.

  • 56. ‘Industrialization Report’, 30 and 31October 1929, 3-4. B-3/10 Conferences-Kyoto1929 - Proceedings #10, IPR Papers. UHM.
  • 57. Partha Chatterjee, ‘Whose Imagined Community?’, in Gopal Balakrishnan (ed), Mapping the Nation (Verso, London, 1996): 214-255.
  • 58. Sinha, Mother India, 15-16.
  • 59. Brace, ‘An Adventure in Friendship’. IPR Papers. UHM.
  • 60. Dr James T. Shotwell, ‘When East meets West’, Press clipping. B-4/8 - Kyoto Articles/Press Releases #2. IPR Papers. UHM.
  • 61. Eleanor Hinder, ‘Women in the Pacific’, The White Ribbon Signal, 8 August 1929, 119.
  • 62. Kris Manjapra, ‘Introduction’, in Sugata Bose and Kris Manjapra (eds), Cosmopolitan Thought Zones: South Asia and the Global Circulation of Ideas (Palgrave Macmillan, New York, 2010): 6.
  • 63. ‘Industrialization Report’, 31 October 1929, 7. B-3/10 Conferences- Kyoto1929 - Proceedings #10, IPR Papers. UHM.
  • 64. Anderson, ‘Pacific Dreams’, 74-75.
  • 65. Tomoko, Internationalising the Pacific, 272-273.
  • 66. Anderson, ‘Pacific Dreams’: 70.
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