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Notes

  • 1. Sidani, Y. M., & Feghali, T. (2014). Female labour participation and pay equity in Arab countries: commonalities and differences. Contemporary Arab Affairs, 7(4), 526-543.
  • 2. Jessup, H. H. (1873). The women of the Arabs. Dodd & Mead.
  • 3. Lebanon was declared a state with its current borders in 1920 and only gained its independence in 1943.
  • 4. Al-Ghanim, K. A., & Badahdah, A. M. (2017). Gender Roles in the Arab World: Development and Psychometric Properties of the Arab Adolescents Gender Roles Attitude Scale. Sex Roles, 77(3-4), 169-177.
  • 5. Refer to World Bank data at http://databank.worldbank.org/data/.
  • 6. UNESCO (2012), World Atlas of Gender Equality in Education, The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Paris, France.
  • 7. Ibid, p. 48.
  • 8. Ibid, p. 60.
  • 9. Ibid, p. 76.
  • 10. UNDP (2010). The Real Wealth of Nations: Pathways to Human Development. New York, NY: United Nations Development Programme.
  • 11. For a discussion see: Korotayev, A. V., Issaev, L. M., & Shishkina, A. R. (2015). Female Labor Force Participation Rate, Islam, and Arab Culture in Cross-Cultural Perspective. Cross-Cultural Research, 49(1), 3-19.
  • 12. Said, E. (1985). Orientalism: Western Representations of the Orient [1978]. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
  • 13. Graham-Brown, S. (1988). Images of Women: The Portrayal of Women in Photography of the Middle East, 1860-1950. New York: Columbia University Press.
  • 14. Ross, M. (2008). Oil, Islam and women. American Political Science Review, 102, 107-123.
  • 15. Ross (2008).
  • 16. Beblawi, H. (1987). The rentier state in the Arab world. Arab Studies Quarterly, 9(4), 383-398.
  • 17. Ibid.
  • 18. Ross (2008), p. 107.
  • 19. Galal, A. (2002). The paradox of education and unemployment in Egypt. Egyptian Center for Economic Studies, Cairo, Egypt.
  • 20. Institute for Women’s Policy Research (2017). Pay Equity & Discrimination. https: //iwpr.org/issue/employment-education-economic-change/pay-equi ty-discrimination/
  • 21. Ibid.
  • 22. Grant, T. (March 6, 2017). Who is minding the gap? The Globe and Mail, https ://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/gender-pay-gap-a- persistent-issue-in-canada/article34210790/
  • 23. Lawrie, E. (April 6, 2017). Gender pay gaps must be declared by UK companies, BBC, http://www.bbc.com/news/business-39502872
  • 24. Official website of Sweden (2017). Sweden and Gender Equality https:// sweden.se/society/sweden-gender-equality/
  • 25. The Australian Government (2017). What is the gender pay gap? https:// www.wgea.gov.au/addressing-pay-equity/what-gender-pay-gap
  • 26. Brown, A., & Patten, E. (April, 2017). The narrowing, but persistent, gender gap in pay. Pew Research Center Analysis. http://www.pewresea rch.org/fact-tank/2017/04/03/gender-pay-gap-facts/
  • 27. Sidani and Feghali (2014).
  • 28. World Economic Forum. (2016). The Global Gender Gap Report. World Economic Forum, Geneva, Switzerland. http://www3.weforum.org/docs/ GGGR16/WEF_Global_Gender_Gap_Report_2016 .pdf
  • 29. Momani, B. (2016). Equality and the Economy: Why the Arab World Should Employ More Women, Policy Briefing, Brookings Doha center.
  • 30. Tlaiss, H. A. (2013). Determinants ofjob satisfaction in the banking sector: the case of Lebanese managers. Employee Relations, 35(4), 377-395.
  • 31. AbdelRahman, A. A., Elamin, A. M., & Aboelmaged, M. G. (2012). Job satisfaction among expatriate and national employees in an Arabian Gulf context. International Journal of Business Research and Development (IJBRD), 1(1), 1-16.
  • 32. Jamali, D., Sidani, Y., & Kobeissi, A. (2008). The gender pay gap revisited: insights from a developing country context. Gender in Management: An International Journal, 23(4), 230-246.
  • 33. Kauflin, J. (January 11, 2017). The Countries with the Best and Worst Gender Pay Gap Expectations. Forbes, https://www.forbes.com/sites/ jeffkauflin/2017/01/11/the-countries-with-the-best-and-worst-gender- pay-gap-expectations-and-how-the-u-s-stacks-up/#3cb11e413cb1
  • 34. Arnold, T. (May 24, 2013). Gender pay gap in Middle East between 20-40%. The National, http://www.thenational.ae/business/industry-in sights/economics/gender-pay-gap-in-middle-east-between-20-40
  • 35. Kapur, S. (2015). Fair Pay: Do UAE men, women earn same? Emirates 247, http://www.emirates247.com/news/emirates/fair-pay-do-uae-men- women-earn-same-2015-01-05-1.575406
  • 36. The Economist (May 13, 2016). The gender pay gap persists almost everywhere. http://www.economist.com/blogs/graphicdetail/2016/05/gende r-pay-gap-0
  • 37. Institute of Management Accountants (June 2016). 2015 United Arab Emirates Salary Survey, https://www.imanet.org/career-resources/salary- information?ssopc=1
  • 38. Forbes Middle East (2017), http://www.forbesmiddleeast.com/
  • 39. Alwardi, A. (2009). A study in the Society of Iraq. Alwarrak Publishing London, UK.
  • 40. Bahry, Louay, and Phebe Marr. (2005). “Qatari Women: A New Generation ofLeaders?” Middle East Policy, 12 (2): 104-119; Metle, Mesh’al Kh. 2001. “Education, Job Satisfaction and Gender in Kuwait.” The International Journal of Human Resource Management 12 (2): 311-332; Itani, H., Sidani, Y. M., & Baalbaki, I. (2011). United Arab Emirates female entrepreneurs: motivations and frustrations. Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, 30(5), 409-424.
  • 41. Malt, C. (2005). Women’s Voices in Middle East Museums: Case Studies in Jordan. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press; Antoun, R. T. (2000). Civil Society, Tribal Process, and Change in Jordan: An Anthropological View. International Journal Middle East Studies 32(4): 441-463.
  • 42. Assaad, R. (2015). Women’s Participation in Paid Employment in Egypt is a Matter of Policy not Simply Ideology. Egypt Network for Integrated Development. Cairo, Egypt. http://enid.org.eg/Uploads/PDF/PB22_women_em ployment_assaad.pdf
  • 43. Cooke, M. (2000). Women, Religion, and the Postcolonial Arab World. Cultural Critique, 45, 150-184.
  • 44. Binzel, Christine, and Ragui Assaad. (2011). “Egyptian Men Working Abroad: Labor Supply Responses by the Women Left Behind.” Labor Economics 18,S98-S114.
  • 45. Assaad, R. (2015), p. 2.
  • 46. World Economic Forum. (2016).
  • 47. Ibid.
  • 48. Yessayan, P., Khanafer, S., & Murray, M. (2011). Women in Lebanese Politics: Discourse and Action. Al-Raida Journal, 78-85. (p. 84).
  • 49. Camenisch, J. (not dated). A Female Engineer in the Middle East: Online Work & Gender Equality, https://www.upwork.com/blog/2014/03/ female-engineer-sparking-gender-equality/
  • 50. Abdo, N. (2011). Promoting Women’s Entrepreneurship in Lebanon: Enhancing Empowerment or Vulnerability?. Al-Raida Journal, 39-47; Itani et al. (2011).
  • 51. Sidani, Y. M., & Al Hakim, Z. T. (2012). Work-family conflicts and job attitudes of single women: A developing country perspective. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 23(7), 1376-1393. (p. 1389).
  • 52. Manadra, H. (2015). Arab Working women: Issues and challenges, Alhewar Almotamadden, 4788: http://www.ahewar.org/debat/show.art.asp?aid =5258
  • 53. Esim, S. (2011). Transforming the World of Work for Gender Equality in the Arab Region. Al-Raida Journal, 2-6.
  • 54. Omeira, M. (2010). Schooling and women’s employability in the Arab region. Al-Raida Journal, 6-16.
  • 55. Hindiyeh-Mani, S. (1998). Women and Men Home-Based Workers in the Informal Sector in the West Bank Textile Industry. Al-Raida Journal, 24-27.
  • 56. International Labour Organization (2016), Women in Business & Management, Regional Office for Arab States, Beirut, Lebanon.
  • 57. Cherie Blaire Foundation (2017), Lebanon Women Entrepreneurs. http:// www.cherieblairfoundation.org/lebanon-women-entrepreneurs/
  • 58. Itani etal. (2011).
  • 59. El Harbi, S., Anderson, A., & Mansour, N. (2009). The attractiveness of entrepreneurship for females and males in a developing Arab Muslim country; entrepreneurial intentions in Tunisia. International Business Research, 2(3), 47-53.
  • 60. Dechant, K., & Lamky, A. A. (2005). Toward an understanding of Arab women entrepreneurs in Bahrain and Oman. Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 10(02), 123-140.
  • 61. Ibid.
  • 62. Abdo, N., & Kerbage, C. (2012). Women’s entrepreneurship development initiatives in Lebanon: micro-achievements and macro-gaps. Gender & Development, 20(1), 67-80.
  • 63. Yousuf Danish, A., & Lawton Smith, H. (2012). Female entrepreneurship in Saudi Arabia: opportunities and challenges. International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, 4(3), 216-235.
  • 64. Raval, A. (December 22, 2015). Saudi women take the business path, The Financial Times, https://www.ft.com/content/a4d20e58-8a33-11e5- 90de-f44762bf9896
  • 65. Itani et al. (2011).
  • 66. Ibid.
  • 67. Le Renard, A. (2011). Dress Practices in the Workplace: Power Relations, Gender Norms and Professional Saudi Women’s Tactics, Al-Raida, Issue 135-136-137, 31-38.
  • 68. Ibid.
 
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