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  • 1. The World Bank, Labor force participation rate, female (% of female population ages 15+), 1990-2014; (modeled ILO estimate). http://data.wo
  • 2. Ibn Utahimeen, M., (2002), Principles of Qur’anic exegesis, Dar Ibn Jawzi - (1423), Saudi Arabia.
  • 3. AlQudat, S. (2002), Hijab in Sunnah. College of Sharia, University of Jordan,
  • 4. Translations differ in terms of adding “some” or not. In the Pickthall translation, “some” is not found. In “Sahih International,” “some” is added. I find that adding “some” is more in line with the Arabic word “min” so it is inserted here.
  • 5. Chapter (24) surat l-nur (The Light), verse 30. Translation of the meaning of the Qur’an. Pickthall. r=24&verse=30
  • 6. Chapter (24) suratl-nur (The Light), verse 31. Translation of the meaning of the Qur’an. Pickthall. r=24&verse=31
  • 7. Ismail Ibn Katheer (1300-1373), born near Damascus, Syria, is a well- respected early Muslim scholar and theologian. He is mostly known for his popular exegesis of the Qur’an which is referred to widely in the Muslim world.
  • 8. Ibn Katheer, Tafseer Al-Qur’an; sura24-aya30.html
  • 9. Yusuf al-Qaradawi is an Egyptian scholar, prolific author, with a long history of activism in Egypt and the Arab world. While he is considered to be a controversial figure due to his political viewpoints, his perspectives regarding the role of women are considered to be liberal. He is often criticized within the extreme salafi movements -among other things—because of his perspectives regarding social interactions in the Muslim society. He has been living in Qatar after being expelled from Egypt due to his affiliations with the Muslim Brotherhood.
  • 10. Al-Qaradawi, Y. (May 26,2013). Lowering thegaze. http://www.qaradawi. net/new/Articles-5188
  • 11. Chapter (24) surat l-nur (The Light), verse 31. Translation of the meaning of the Qur’an. Pickthall. r=24&verse=31
  • 12. Chapter (24) surat l-nur (The Light), verse 60. Translation of the meaning of the Qur’an. Pickthall. r=24&verse=60
  • 13. Chapter (33) suratl-ahzab (The Combined Forces), verse 59. Translation of the meaning of the Qur’an. Pickthall. jsp?chapter=33&verse=59
  • 14. Muhammad Ibn-Uthaimeen (1925-2001) was a Saudi scholar considered one of the pillars of the salafi school. He was a member of the Council of Senior Scholars in Saudi Arabia, which is a highly respected religious body appointed by the King. His influence has extended well beyond Saudi Arabia.
  • 15. Uthaimeen, Muhammad bin Saleh. (1998). Instructions to believers on adornments and unveiling. Ibn Khuzaima publishing House, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
  • 16. Huda Sha’arawi (1879-1947), born in Egypt, is perhaps the most renowned Arab feminist of the twentieth century. She was very active in advancing women’s issues. She is most famous for lifting the face cover (most probably in the year 1921) that was dominant at the time among Egyptian women. She authored an autobiography reflecting on her experiences and struggles.
  • 17. Williams, J. A. (1979). Return to the veil in Egypt. Middle East Review, 11 (3), 49-54.
  • 18. Radwan, A. (July 6, 2006). The return of the veil. Time Magazine. http://,8599,1210781,00.html
  • 19. Gauvain, R. (2010). Salafism in modern Egypt: panacea or pest?. Political Theology, 11(6), 802-825.
  • 20. Sunan Abi Dawood. Clothing (Kitab Al-Libas). udawud/34/85. In-book reference: Book 34, Hadith 85; English translation: Book 33, Hadith 4092.
  • 21. Muhammad al-Ghazali (1917-1996) is a famous Egyptian theologian and writer whose impact extended beyond Egypt into vast areas of the Arab and Muslim world. His writings regarding Islamic jurisprudence and the implications of the hadeeth corpus are considered revolutionary. In addition, his ideas were considered to be very progressive concerning issues of family dynamics and women’s status in the Arab and Muslim world.
  • 22. Al-Ghazali, M. (1990), Kadaya al-Mar’ah - Women’s issues, Shurook Publishing, Cairo, Egypt.
  • 23. Chapter (33) suratl-ahzab (The Combined Forces), verse 53. Translation of the meaning of the Qur’an. Pickthall. jsp?chapter=33&verse=53
  • 24. Chapter (33) surat l-ahzab (The Combined Forces), verse 53
  • 25. Al-Fawzan, Saleh Bin F awzan. (December 1, 2006). Hijab ruling for Muslim women,
  • 26. Abdel Halim Abu Shuqqah (1924-1995) was an Egyptian scholar and educator. He is best known for his encyclopedic work on the Emancipation of women in the era of the Prophet where he collected hundreds of hadeeth from various hadeeth books explaining the role of women during the era of Prophet Muhammad.
  • 27. Al-Qaradawi, Y. (April 20, 2008). Ikhtilat between the sexes: its essence, ruling, and controls. Muntada al-Islam,
  • 28. Al-Qaradawi, Y. (April 20, 2008). Al-ikhtilat between the sexes.
  • 29. Sahih Muslim 442; Sahih Muslim English translation: Book 4, Hadith 885.
  • 30. Umar Ibn al-Khattab (586?-644), the second of the four “Guided Caliphs” who succeeded Prophet Muhammad. He was a very influential figure in the history of Islam. His reign witnessed an expansion of the Muslim state and the introduction of many political and administrative structures.
  • 31. Aisha Bint Abi Bakr (604-678) was the wife of Prophet Muhammad and the daughter of one of his closest companions. She was a politically active woman after the third Caliph was assassinated.
  • 32. Fatima Mernissi (1940-2015) was a Moroccan sociologist and feminist writer. She is most famous for her writing about male-female relations in Muslim society and the veil in historic context. She offered what she considers to be a “feminist interpretation of Islam” where she analyzed the lives of the wives of the Prophet and their roles within Muslim society.
  • 33. Mernissi, F. (1997). The forgotten queens of Islam. University of Minnesota Press, Minnesota.
  • 34. Al-Faruqi, L. (1987), Women, Muslim society, and Islam, American Trust Publications, Indianapolis, IN.
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