Desktop version

Home arrow Religion arrow Muslim Women at Work: Religious Discourses in Arab Society

Notes

  • 1. Musnad Ahmad. Reported from Aisha, Hadith #24302, http://library.islam web.net/hadith/display_hbook.php?bk_no=121&hid=24302&pid=62379
  • 2. Kahf, Mohja. (2008), “From her royal body the robe was removed.” The veil: Women writers on its history, lore, and politics, 27. edited by Jennifer Heath, Univ of California Press.
  • 3. Abdel Aziz Bin Baz (1910-1999) was a Saudi jurist and scholar. He was the Grand Mufti from 1992 to 1999. He was a very influential figure in Saudi Arabia having occupied many official positions in the Kingdom. He is considered one of the major figures in the salafi understanding of Islam. He is also considered to be a prolific writer although he lost his eyesight at an early age.
  • 4. BinBaz, A. (1985), “Judgement about women’s work”, available at: http:// www.binbaz.org.sa/fatawa/91; BinBaz, A. (1988), Islamic Fatwas, Darul- Qalam, Beirut.
  • 5. Drury, S. (July 30, 2015). Education: The Key to Women’s Empowerment in Saudi Arabia? Middle East Institute, http://www.mei.edu/content/article/ education-key-women%E2%80%99s-empowerment-saudi-arabia
  • 6. Ibid.
  • 7. Arab Human Development Report (2002), Creating Opportunities for Future Generations, UNDP, New York, NY.
  • 8. King Faisal bin Abdulaziz Al Saud was King of Saudi Arabia from 1964 to 1975. He implemented lots of reforms in the kingdom including increased education for girls despite the strenuous resistance from ultra-conservative circles.
  • 9. Moaddel, M. (2013). The birthplace of the Arab spring: values and perceptions of Tunisians and a comparative assessment of Egyptian, Iraqi, Lebanese, Pakistani, Saudi, Tunisian, and Turkish publics. Department of Sociology, and Research, National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Response to Terrorism, University of Maryland, http://mevs.org/files/tmp/ Tunisia_FinalReport.pdf
  • 10. Middle East Online, (March 26, 2016). Banning niqab in public spaces protects Tunisians. http://middle-east-online.com/?id=221126
  • 11. FRANCE 24 Arabic, The face veil that hides the Egyptian women, YouTube Video, uploaded on Jun 27,2008. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tg AfV8TRHpY
  • 12. The Independent. (25 August 2016). 7 facts about France’s burkini ban that make outsiders very uncomfortable http://www.independent.co.uk/ne ws/world/europe/burkini-ban-ruling-france-sarkozy-nice-beach-pictures-m uslim-islam-a7208476.html
  • 13. Ibid.
  • 14. FRANCE 24 Arabic, The face veil that hides the Egyptian women, YouTube Video, (uploaded on Jun 27, 2008). https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=tgAfV8TRHpY
  • 15. The Economist, (Aug 27, 2015). Muslim dress in Egypt Haughty about the hijab. http://www.economist.com/news/middle-east-and-africa/21662561- women-campaign-against-places-ban-veil-haughty-about-hijab
  • 16. Gamal el-Banna (1920-2013) was an Egyptian scholar and writer. He is best known as being the youngest brother of Hasan el-Banna, the founder of the Muslim Brotherhood. He is also known to have had extremely progressive propositions regarding issues of secularism, justice, and family issues. Noha El-Hennawy writing for the Egypt Independent notes that he was “a feminist at heart,” as he advocated for a greater role for women in Muslim societies.
  • 17. El-Banna, J. (2010). Hijab, Dar Shurook, Cairo, Egypt.
  • 18. de Beauvoir, S. (1973). The second sex, New York; Vintage Books.
  • 19. For example, this is the view adopted by Nawal el-Saadawi where in many of her writings she indicates that religion, including all monotheistic religions, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, have been responsible for the disempow- erment of women and they were major contributors in strengthening patriarchal structures.
  • 20. On the issue of apologetic responses, see Barlas, A. (2002). “Believing Women” in Islam: Unreading Patriarchal Interpretations of the Qur’an. University of Texas Press.
  • 21. Saleh, A. (2013). Epistemological dimension of Islamic feminism. In Omamima Abu Bakr. Feminism and the Islamic perspective. Women and Memory Foundation, Egypt.
  • 22. Cooke, M. (2004). Women claim Islam: Creating Islamic feminism through literature. Routledge. p. xiv.
  • 23. Ibid.
  • 24. Abou-Bakr, O. M. (2011). A Gender-sensitive Reading of Qur’anic Exegesis’. in Qudsia Mirza (ed.) Islamic Feminism and the Law. London: Routledge/Cavendish.
  • 25. Zayn al-Din 1998 as quoted by Cooke (p. xiv). Nazira Zainuldin (1908-1976) was a Druze Lebanese writer and activist who argued against the seclusion of Muslim women. She is known for her revolutionary ideas outlined in two books “Unveiling and veiling” and “The young woman and the sheikhs”.
  • 26. Barlas (2002).
  • 27. Barlas (2002), p. xi.
  • 28. Ezzat, H. In El-Saadawy, N. & Ezzat, Heba Raouf (2000). Women, religion, and morals. Darul-Fikr Al-Mu’aser. Damascus, Syria.
  • 29. Ibid.
  • 30. Banani, F. (1993). Taqseem al-’amal baina al-Rajul wa al-Mar’ah (Division of labor between men and women). Marrakesh: Manshurat Kulliyat al-’Ulum al-Qanuniyya. As quoted by Bahlul, R. (2000). On the idea of Islamic feminism. Journal of Islamic Studies, 20, 34-63.
  • 31. Saleh (2013).
  • 32. Ibid.
  • 33. Al-Hibri, A. (1997). Islam, law and custom: Redefining Muslim women’s rights. American University Journal of International Law and Policy, 12: 1-44.
  • 34. Heba Raouf Ezzat (1965-) is a Professor of Political Theory at Cairo University. She is the Co-founder, and consultant (1999-2005) on strategic planning and editorial policy evaluation, for the popular online service www.islamonline.net. Her research interests include globalization, women, empowerment, and social change.
  • 35. Ezzat (2000).
  • 36. Charusheela, S. (2001). Women’s choices and the ethnocentrism/relativism dilemma. Postmodernism, economics and knowledge, 15, 197.
  • 37. Charusheela (2001), p. 199.
  • 38. Charusheela (2001), p. 206.
  • 39. Ardizzoni, M. (2004). Unveiling the veil: Gendered discourses and the (in) visibility of the female body in France. Women’s Studies, 33(5), 629-649.
  • 40. El-Saadawy, N. & Ezzat, Heba Raouf (2000).
  • 41. Ahmad, Ghadeer. (October 22, 2016). Veil or no-veil: an endless duality. Al-Quds Al-Arabi, http://www.alquds.co.uk/?p=617520
  • 42. Amina Haleem (2015) Covernance: Feminist Theory, the Islamic Veil, and the Strasbourg Court’s Jurisprudence on Religious Dress-Appearance Restrictions, 5 DePaul J. Women, Gender & L, Available at: http://via.lib rary.depaul.edu/jwgl/vol5/iss1/1
  • 43. Down, S. (2011). Debating the Burqa: How the Burqa Debate Can Reveal More than It Hides. Canterbury L. Rev., 17, 375.
  • 44. Down (2011), p. 390.
  • 45. Bullock, K. (2002). Rethinking Muslim women and the veil: Challenging historical & modern stereotypes. IIIT, Henndon, Virginia.
  • 46. Bullock (2002), p. 24.
  • 47. Ikran, Eum. (2000) Discourses on (Un)Veiling in Egypt, Asian Journal of Women’s Studies, 6:4, 102-124
  • 48. See Bullock (2002); Haddad, Y. Y., & Esposito, J. L. (Eds.). (1997). Islam, gender, and social change. Oxford University Press; Haddad, Y. Y. (2007). The post-9/11 hijab as icon. Sociology of Religion, 68(3), 253-267.
  • 49. Of course, this is not to say that such women claim that unveiled women lack modesty or morality.
  • 50. Ikran (2000).
  • 51. Haddad (2007).
  • 52. Ikran (2000).
  • 53. Badran, M. (2006). Islamic feminism revisited. Al-Ahram Weekly On-Line, 781,9-15.
  • 54. Ibid.
  • 55. In Islamic jurisprudence there should be separation between men and women during prayers—within the same space—preferably with different access points. Many mosques in the Arab world are architecturally built in a way where such separation is not easy. This ends up denying women from any access. In the past few decades, however, women have increasingly been able to access newly built mosques which accommodate all Muslims, male or female.
  • 56. El-Gawhary, K. (1994), “It is time to launch a new women’s liberation movement - an Islamic one (an interview with Heba Ra’uf)”, Middle East Report, November-December, pp. 26-7.
  • 57. Ezzat (2000).
  • 58. Ibid.
  • 59. Ibid
  • 60. Golley, N. A. H. (2004). Is feminism relevant to Arab women?. Third World Quarterly, 25(3), 521-536.
  • 61. Ikran (2000).
  • 62. Abu-Lughod, L. (2001). “Orientalism” and Middle East. Feminist Studies. 27(1): 101-113.
  • 63. Abdel Wahab el-Messiri (1938-2008) was an Egyptian scholar, historian, and author who wrote a lot about Western culture, secularism, Arab-Israeli conflicts, and comparative literature.
  • 64. Al-Messiri, A. (2010). The woman issue between emancipation and female- centered discourse. Nadaht Masr, Cairo, Egypt.
  • 65. Ezzat (2000).
 
Source
< Prev   CONTENTS   Source   Next >