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  • 1. Bernard, M. (March 3,2013). The Washington Post. Despite the tremendous risk, African American women marched for suffrage, too.
  • 2. Hix, Lisa. (November 1, 2012). War on Women, Waged in Postcards: Memes From the Suffragist Era, Collectors Weekly, http://www.collecto suffragist-era/
  • 3. Juraga, D. (1997). Nuruddin Farah’s Variations on the Theme of an African Dictatorship: Patriarchy, Gender, and Political Oppression in Somalia. Critique: Studies in Contemporary Fiction, 38(3), 205-220.
  • 4. Lebanon is still in need of better freedom of press as it ranks 99 among 180 countries along the 2017 World Press Freedom index. Yet, its ranking is considered high compared to other Arab countries (second only to Tunisia which ranks 97).
  • 5. Sidani, Y. M., Konrad, A., & Karam, C. M. (2015). From female leadership advantage to female leadership deficit: A developing country perspective. Career Development International, 20(3), 273-292.
  • 6. Ibid.
  • 7. Chemali Khalaf, M. (2002). Women in postwar Lebanon. In Kail C. Elillis (Ed.). Lebanon’s second republic: Prospects for the twenty-first century, pp. 146-158, University Press of Florida.
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  • 11. Arab States Education for All, 2015 Regional Review. (2015). Final Synthesis Report, Synthesis-Report-of-EFA-reviews_ARB.pdf
  • 12. Jalbout, M., (May 21, 2015). How can the Middle East close its education gap? World Economic Forum, how-can-the-middle-east-close-its-education-gap/
  • 13. Arab Trade Union, (January 23, 2016). Do labor laws Arab countries criminalize sexual harassment or violence against women? http://www.a sexual-harassment-or-violence-against-women
  • 14. Renuka Rayasam, (March 11, 2016). Why Germany’s New Quota for Women On Boards Looks Like a Bust. Yahoo! Finance,
  • 15. Women Economic Empowerment Portal, (October 21, 2016). Motivating private sector to lift women’s representation from 1% to 30%. http://www. representation-1-30
  • 16. Maharat News. (September 9,2015). The female quota: An insult to women seeking political participation.
  • 17. Sidani et al. (2015).
  • 18. Sidani, Y. (2005). Women, work, and Islam in Arab societies. Women in Management Review, 20(7), 498-512.
  • 19. Ibid.
  • 20. Moghadam, V. (2002). Islamic feminism and its discontents: Towards a resolution of the debate. In T. Saliba, C. Allen, & J. Howard (Eds.), Gender, politics, and Islam (pp. 15-51). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • 21. Aljazeera, (November 2, 2014). Women control 31% of the parliamentary seats in Tunisia. 2014/11/2/
  • 22. ElNaseri, Mariam. (March 6, 2015). Tunisian women present in struggles, absent in decision making. Danish-Arab Partnership Programme, http://
  • 23. Moghadam, V. M. (2005). Globalizing women: Transnational feminist networks. Baltimore: JHU Press (preface).
  • 24. Report On The Application Of CEDAW In The Arab World. (May 2009). Association Democratique Des Femmes Du Maroc, Rabat, Morocco. https:// cedaw-in-the-arab-world.pdf
  • 25. The Arab region: 30 years Of CEDAW, In 06 Occasional Papers - Social Watch, Beijing And Beyond, Putting gender economics at the forefront, 15 years after the IV World Conference on Women, Natalia Cardona, Elsa Duhagon & Amir Hamed (Eds.), (March 2010), http://www.socialwatch. org/sites /default/files/B15ArabRegion2010_eng.pdf
  • 26. Mayer, A.E., (1998), The merits and drawbacks of the new world hypocrisy, Al-Raida, Volume XV, 12-21.
  • 27. Ahmed, Leila (1992). Women and gender in Islam. Yale University Press. Leila Ahmed is an Egyptian American scholar of Islam and Islamic feminism. In 1999, she was appointed as the first professor of women’s studies in religion at Harvard Divinity School and was appointed to the Victor S. Thomas chair in 2003. Her seminal work is Women and Gender in Islam (1992) and she more recently published A Quiet Revolution: The Veil’s Resurgence, from the Middle East to America.
  • 28. Ho, C., (2010) Responding to orientalist feminism, Australian Feminist Studies, 25:66, 433-439, DOI: 10.1080/08164649.2010.525211
  • 29. Ahmed (1992).
  • 30. McNeal, M. (2008). Do Muslim Women Really Need Saving? Mission, Reconciliation and Gender in the Arab World. St Francis Magazine, 4(3), 1-12. (p. 9).
  • 31. Eltahawy, M. (2012). Why do they hate us?. Foreign Policy, 193, 1-9.
  • 32. Golley notes that “Islam has always been the pot within which the subject of Arab women has been cooked. The West has a generalized view that Arab women are Muslims and that Islam, viewed as monolithic religion, oppresses women” (p. 17). While one is inclined to agree with such a statement regarding the prevalence of such a perspective, it needs to be noted again that such a generalized view is not restricted to some Western scholars. This view is shared by some Arab authors, activists, and feminists; Golley, N. A. H. (2010). Reading Arab women’s autobiographies: Shahrazad tells her story. University of Texas Press.
  • 33. Fisher, Max. (April 25, 2012). The Real Roots of Sexism in the Middle East (It’s Not Islam, Race, or ‘Hate’), The Atlantic, https://www.theatlantic.



  • 34. As an example of blaming the “religious right,” the famous Al-Hilal Egyptian cultural periodical published in March 2017 a special issue under the title; "The Arab Woman.. .Before the Spring and after the storm”. The interesting thing from the title is that it relabels the Arab Spring as storm as the spring is yet to come, thus discrediting the—now failing—Arab Spring. In one of the articles, Farida Nakkash talks about the “religious right” which aims to besiege the female body through the usage of two types of discourse that lead to the same outcome. The first discourse views the female body as a sex symbol, which is a source of seduction and sin. That’s why it needs to be hidden and secluded. The second discourse looks at the body as a valuable jewel, a symbol of motherhood and fertility, which needs to be protected. She concludes by noting that the religious right takes texts out of context leading in both cases to one outcome: the marginalization and seclusion of women. In the same issue Hussam Haddad, an expert on Islamic movements, throws a blanket condemnation of schools of Islamic jurisprudence including those affiliated with the official Azhar institution.
  • 35. Fish, M. S. (2002). Islam and authoritarianism. World politics, 55(1), 4-37.
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