This category includes research papers that discuss security issues in smart cities. Smart cities require access to cost-effective, high-performance security services, along with sophisticated control systems that would allow better control and higher network reliability.
Crime and Disaster Issues
This subcategory mentions that the digital infrastructure of smart cities would be in private hands, which may lead to information theft and thus increase cybercrimes. Theft of private information may also lead to an increase in terrorist activities and other disasters (Martinez-Balleste et al., 2013; Cano et al., 2014).
This subcategory includes research papers that discuss privacy issues in smart cities. Privacy-preserving mechanisms should be the key concern to achieve the trust and acceptance of smart cities. Continuous tracking programs can cause unnecessary and unwanted surveillance, which invades the privacy of citizens (Sandoval-Almazan et al., 2015). This may lead to an increase in personal data thefts and the crime rate (van der Graaf and Veeckman, 2014).
Authenticity refers to the verification of the credentials of an individual with the existing database of authorized users (Bartoli et al., 2011). The authenticity issue may arise when an attacker (third party) attempts to gain electronic access to and misconfigure or manipulate a component and report a false condition or alarm. Smart city protocol designers must ensure that proper care and attention is given to this threat during protocol development (Su et al., 2011).
This category includes research papers that discuss hardware and software incompatibility and the lack of know-how related to digital platforms and gadgets used by citizens in smart cities.
Hardware and Software Incompatibility
One of the biggest challenges would be hardware and software incompatibility. Everything in smart cities would be automated, and any fragmentation may lead to serious failures and accidents (Gil-Garcia, 2013).
Lack of Know-How
This subcategory represents the citizens' lack of technical skills, because of which they would be unable to properly utilize the government information-sharing initiatives (Gil-Garcia, 2013).