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Multifaceted Risk Mapping for Different Categories of Digital Services

Multifaceted risk mapping for different types of digital services is shown in Figure 12.5. Each type of information-related risk, such as performance risk, has been mapped to all of the different types of digital services including technology-assisted consumer contact, technology-facilitated consumer contact, technology-mediated consumer contact, technology-generated consumer contact, and technology-free consumer contact. The mapping shows how performance risk is associated with the different digital services.

Multifaceted Risk Mapping for Technology-Assisted Consumer Contact

In technology-assisted consumer contact, the service provider has access to the technology whereas the service consumer does not have access to the technology during the interaction with the service provider. The contact between the two is therefore face-to-face. The different types of perceived risk associated with technology-assisted consumer contact are shown in Table 12.4.


Multifaceted risk mapping with different categorization of digital services.

Multifaceted Risk Mapping of Technology-Assisted Consumer Contact

Technology-Assisted Consumer Contact

Technology-Assisted Consumer Contact

Performance risk

Travel agent failure to provide ticket or receptionist unable to book hotel room

Financial risk

Loss of ticket price for traveler, loss due to nonbooking of room

Time risk

Time spent with the travel agent or time spent with the receptionist

Psychological risk

Trust of travel agency, trust of the hotel

Social risk

Reputation of travel agency; reputation and brand image of the hotel

Privacy risk

Personal information or credit card information of the traveler

Physical risk

Travel to the wrong destination or taking a different hotel room

Overall risk

Harassment of traveler

Management of Multidimensional Risk for Digital Services in Smart Cities


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