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Individual outcomes

In addition to the importance of studying applicant reactions from an organizational perspective, Gilliland (1993) argued that, from an ethical perspective, we should care about the well-being of applicants and thus study their reactions to selection procedures. Research suggests that applicant reactions impact self-efficacy and self-esteem.

Self-efficacy Some research has found that fairness perceptions are positively related to selfefficacy (e.g., Bauer et al., 1998; Truxillo et al., 2002; Truxillo, Bauer & Sanchez, 2001). This is important because applicants with higher test-taking self-efficacy tend to perform better on selection procedures. For example, McCarthy, Hrabluik and Jelley (2009) demonstrated that in four studies using six selection procedures, self-efficacy had a positive relationship with test scores on these selection procedures. Interestingly, an interaction effect between procedural justice and selection outcome has found that when individuals perceive unfairness and do not receive a job offer, self-efficacy is lowest (e.g., Ployhart & Ryan, 1997).

Self-esteem In addition to placing importance on understanding how the selection process impacts self-efficacy, Gilliland (1993) placed value on understanding how fairness and selection outcomes might predict self-esteem. In general, research has indicated that there is a positive relationship between the two (e.g., Bauer et al., 2001; Hausknecht et al., 2004).

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