Typical Intellectual Engagement scale
Goff and Ackerman (1992) conceptualized the Typical Intellectual Engagement (TIE) scale as a measure of an individual’s typical level of intelligence and developed a selfreport scale to assess (rather than measure) an individual’s level of intelligence. Higher scores indicate a stronger inclination to engage in intellectual activities. Sample items from the TIE scale are: ‘You enjoy thinking out complicated problems’, ‘The notion of thinking abstractly is not appealing to me (reverse-scored)’, and ‘I read a great deal.’
The conceptual importance of TIE is advocated on the basis of possible differences in individuals’ level of intellectual investment. Two individuals with the same IQ or maximal performance may differ in their level of intellectual investment or typical performance. TIE posits that an individual’s level of intellectual investment will have positive developmental effects on their acquisition of skills and knowledge in adulthood. TIE implies that typical performance may be as important in determining future intellectual competence as maximal performance, or, in simple terms, that personality may explain differences in adult intellectual competence, while ability may not. TIE may refer to aspects of typical performance not encompassed by established personality traits and is therefore of potential value in expanding or understanding individual differences, in particular with regard to the dispositional or trait determinants of educational achievement.