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Future Research

There are many opportunities for future research in this area.

One such area is the development and use of a well-validated, multidimensional measure of job attraction. International research collaboration or cross-cultural studies using different populations and a consistent test would help in deepening our understanding.

A second area is the paucity of models or overarching theories. The development and sequent testing of such a model could provide a more comprehensive list of the factors involved; further, by testing in different national and generational populations a more sophisticated understanding of their relationship and weightings developed.


Choosing the right job in the right organization is important to an individual’s long-term happiness and welfare, as well as that of the organization they choose to work for. Most organizations spend considerable resources on recruitment and selection. They aim to attract people with particular skills, values and motivation who will be both happy and productive in the organization. Similarly, job-seekers want accurate and reliable information about all aspects of the job and the organization before they apply. It is clear that there are individual differences in job/organizational attraction as a function of ability, personality and values.

From a recruiting perspective, in the early stages recruiters should show personable behaviours that will entice applicants to pursue the job. Recruiters should enhance the perception of fairness by explaining the selection procedures, keeping the applicants informed and minimizing delays. The recruiter has the ability to influence a desired applicant into accepting an offer. Finally, recruiters should mitigate any negative consequences of difficult selection procedures that may reduce the expectations of being hired and inform the applicants that the selection task is demanding and could be challenging for many successful applicants.

There are no powerful theories in this area, save perhaps ASA theory. Moreover, there are many studies that measure two or three factors at a time without providing a model of all the factors that are relevant to the issue of attraction.

Regarding personality, extraversion and conscientiousness seem to have the strongest positive relation in applicant attraction. Energetic, enthusiastic, talkative, assertive and gregarious individuals who are also thorough, careful, efficient, organized, self-disciplined, task-oriented and aim for achievement tend to be the most desired employees.

Emphasizing the positive elements linked with the work environment and organizational image enhances attraction to the job. Also, fair and considerate treatment through the recruitment stage plays an important role in accepting a job offer. Person- organization fit plays a critical role influencing organizational attraction. From an organization perspective, attraction is related to the instrumental-symbolic framework, where applicants differentiate between organizations based on their trait inferences (symbolic) rather than traditional job and organization characteristics (instrumental). Instrumental traits are tangible and objective, whereas symbolic traits are related to self-expression, image and brand (Lievens & Highhouse, 2003). Using this knowledge, organizations can differentiate themselves from their competitors and use their culture and identity as an advantage to attract personnel that have similar values and are more committed.

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