Criterion Validity and Validity Generalization
Criterion validity is defined in the Principles for the Validation and Use of Personnel Selection Procedures (Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, SIOP, 2003) as the demonstration of a useful relationship between the test (predictor) and one or more measures of job-relevant behaviour (criteria). Currently, the most useful and robust method for assessing the evidence of criterion validity of personnel selection procedures (e.g., GMA tests) is a meta-analysis (Hunter & Schmidt, 2000). In personnel selection, a meta-analysis is also used to examine whether there is evidence of validity generalization across studies (Schmidt & Hunter, 1977). In this section, the main findings on the validity of GMA for predicting different organizational criteria across the world are reviewed, as well as some relevant issues regarding differential validity and differential prediction. The section is divided into four subsections: (a) validity of GMA for predicting overall and task performance and training; (b) primary validity studies in Africa, Latin America and the Indian-Pacific Ocean countries; (c) validity of GMA for predicting nontask performance and other organizational criteria; and (d) validity and incremental validity of specific cognitive abilities.