Many of the widely adopted assessments for individual-based personnel selection, such as those for cognitive ability and personality traits, can be used to select individuals for teams. However, assessments pertaining to team-based KSAOs (e.g., teamwork skills) may not be directly adapted from individual selection tools and thus need to be developed and validated in a team context.
Situational judgement tests (SJTs) have been widely applied as a measurement tool to assess team-related KSAs. Overall, meta-analytic evidence has shown that SJTs assessing team role knowledge and teamwork skills have criterion-related validity in predicting performance across various job performance facets (i.e., contextual performance and task performance; Christian, Edwards & Bradley, 2010). Using SJTs, a population measurement tool for individual teamwork capabilities is the Teamwork Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities (KSA) test (Stevens & Campion, 1999). Based on Stevens and Campion’s (1999) taxonomy of teamwork capacities, the Teamwork KSA test consists of 35 SJT items that assess interpersonal KSAs (i.e., conflict resolution, collaborative problem solving and communication) and self-management KSAs (goal-setting and performance management, and planning and coordination). Scores on the sub-dimensions of the Teamwork KSA test are then aggregated to produce a single score representing overall teamwork KSAs for team selection purpose. A series of validation studies have demonstrated criterion-related validity of the Teamwork KSA test across performance facets (e.g., teamwork performance, task performance and contextual performance) and organizational settings (organizational and military samples; e.g., McClough & Rogelberg, 2003; Mohammed et al., 2010; but see O’Neill, Coffin & Gellatly, 2012). This test can be paired with structured interviews and personality inventories to assess additional social skills and personality traits (Morgeson, Reider, & Campion, 2005).
Focusing on the role team members play, Mumford, Van Iddekinge, Morgeson and Campion (2008) developed and validated a team role knowledge situational judgement test. Based on Mumford, Campion and Morgeson’s (2006) team role typology, the purpose of this team role test (TRT) is to assess team members’ declarative and procedural knowledge of team roles as well as the situational contingencies underlying each role and use it to predict individual role performance. Notably, the TRT presents 9 scenarios (for 9 team roles) and 10 items (behavioural descriptions) for each scenario, and the test-takers are asked to rate the effectiveness of each item. Results from two field studies showed that scores on the TRT predicted team member role performance in academic (student project teams) and applied (production and maintenance teams) settings, as well as providing incremental validity above and beyond mental ability and the Big Five traits in the student sample and team tenure in the employee sample.
Given the positive relationship between EI and team performance (e.g., Farh et al., 2012), researchers have developed measures to capture a team’s emotional intelligence profile. The Workgroup Emotional Intelligence Profile (WEIP; Jordan, Ashkanasy, Hartel & Hooper, 2002; Jordan & Lawrence, 2009) was developed and validated as a self-reported assessment of team contextualized individual EI and predicts positive team behaviours and team performance (e.g., Jordan et al., 2002; Sue-Chan & Latham, 2004).
Taking a different approach from self-report, McCormack, Duchon, Geyer and Orvis (2009) used data from mining and network analyses to derive team task requirements and team-related KSAOs from archival data. The relevant KSAOs needed for teamwork were obtained from biodata (e.g., resumes) and past performance data (e.g., team roles and individual performance), communication data (e.g., responsiveness to emails) to form a set of assessments for task requirements, task work and teamwork skills, and relationship quality. Macormack and colleagues’ approach offers an alternative way of conceptualizing and developing team assessment that can be used in research and practice.