Observed Score Differences between Whites and US Latinos/Hispanics
Latinos/Hispanics are the largest, most ethnically diverse and fastest-growing non-dominant group in the US. According to the U.S. Census Bureau (2014), Latinos/Hispanics comprise about 17.4% of the US population. The presence of Latinos/Hispanics in the
US is expected to increase due to higher immigration and fertility rates than other minority groups (Choi, Sakamoto & Powers, 2008). In fact, the Latino/Hispanic population grew by 43% between 2000 and 2010, four times the increase in the total population (Ennis, Rios-Vargas & Albert, 2011). With regard to the current US population of Latinos/ Hispanics, based on the 2010 Census, 50.5 million (16%) self-identified as being of Latino or Hispanic origin (Ennis et al., 2011). This is an increase from the year 2000 when this population made up 13% of the total population. Utilizing data from the 2010 Census, it was reported that within the Latino/Hispanic population, people of Mexican origin were the largest Latino/Hispanic group, representing 63% of the total US Latino/Hispanic population (Ennis et al., 2011). Puerto Ricans were the second largest group, comprising 9% of the Latino/Hispanic population, while Cubans made up about 4% of the Latino/ Hispanic population (Ennis et al., 2011). These three groups accounted for approximately three-quarters of the total US Latino/Hispanic population.
Despite the size of Latino/Hispanics groups in the US and the global workforce, as well as their rate of growth, research on score differences has focused primarily on African- Americans to the seeming exclusion of Latinos/Hispanics (Dean et al., 2008; Dovidio, Gluszek, John, Ditlmann & Lagunes, 2010; Reynolds, Willson & Ramsey, 1999; Verney, Granholm, Marshall, Malcarne & Saccuzzo, 2005). Our review of score differences between Whites and US Latinos/Hispanics focuses on current meta-analyses and narrative reviews, which are limited.