To date, little is known about where employees go after leaving their organizations. Studies of turnover destinations could provide much insight into what drives employees to leave (Hom et al., 2012). Exit interviews typically include questions about the leaver’s new job and organization. This information could be used to determine whether predictors of turnover differ depending on destination. For example, the motivational forces that cause a high-skilled worker to go to a competitor are likely to differ from the motivational forces that compel a stagnant worker to move on to a new occupation.
Many turnover studies have been conducted on non-US samples, as discussed earlier (Harman, Blum, Stefani & Taho, 2009; Robinson, Griffeth, Allen & Lee, 2012), with the majority of non-US studies conducted in Australia (e.g., Smith, Oczkowski & Smith, 2011), the UK (e.g., Morrell, Loan-Clarke, Arnold & Wilkinson, 2008), China (e.g., Hom & Xiao, 2011) and India (e.g., Guchait & Cho, 2010). The purpose of these studies has mainly been to replicate US findings (e.g., Allen et al., 2009) and determine whether relationships vary by culture and national content (Gelfand, Erez & Aycan, 2007). The research suggests that certain variables that are highly predictive of turnover in the US, such as job embeddedness, may have differential effects crossculturally (Harman et al., 2009; Ramesh & Gelfand, 2010). For instance, off-the-job embeddedness may be more important in collectivism culture than in individualistic cultures (Jiang et al., 2012). Although some cross-cultural research has gone beyond examining just one nationality by making comparisons between US and non-US employees (e.g., Bingham, Boswell & Boudreau, 2005; Wang, Lawler, Walumbwa & Shi, 2004), this crash approach (i.e., comparing just one country’s results with the rest of the world) is still quite limited. Other cross-cultural studies have compared multiple countries within a region, such as Europe (Tanova & Holtom, 2008; Zheng & Lamond, 2010). But to truly understand how antecedents, consequences and turnover decisions differ across regions, future research needs to be conducted with large cross-national samples.
In summary, there are many emerging areas in turnover research that can serve as the foundation for future research over the following decades. We have highlighted just a few in this section. Future research on employee life-stages and individual decision modelling can build on the critical notion of time in the turnover process. Further research on stayers, newcomers, boomerang employees and turnover destinations can greatly expand our understanding of the factors impacting employee turnover and retention. Lastly, large multinational samples can expand existing turnover models and provide further insight into the role of cultural values and context in turnover decisions.