Specify the role and responsibilities
According to the HR consultancy Novations, almost half of the staff leaving said that their departure was hastened by unrealistic expectations of the job and the organization (reported in Amble, 2007). The concept of a realistic job preview (RJP) has been introduced to provide job applicants with a clear idea of what the job really entails, so that, in theory, the potential new recruit is able to make an informed acceptance decision (Landis, Earnest & Allen, 2013). RJPs are defined as programmes, materials and/or presentations that provide applicants with accurate information and should objectively show both the positive and negative aspects of the job and the organizational environment (Wanous, 1989). After recruitment, the roles and responsibilities are confirmed during the on-boarding process. In the absence of RJPs, there is a risk of mismatch between expectations and reality, resulting in an increased intention to leave (Earnest et al., 2011). Some studies, though, have shown that RJPs have only a modest effect on turnover (e.g., McEvoy & Cascio, 1985; Premack & Wanous, 1985), but the low cost of implementing RJPs makes them a very cost-effective tool to manage turnover, especially when they are customized to particular talent targeted for recruitment (Earnest, Allen & Landis, 2011).