Identification with the organization is closely related to turnover intentions (Smith, Amiot, Callan, Terry & Smith, 2012; van Dick et al., 2004). Alignment of the employee with the organization’s culture, identity and values and having participative goal-setting can add to the organization-person fit (O’Reilly, Chatman & Caldwell, 1991; Vandenberghe, 1999). Smith and colleagues (2012) proposed and validated a model in which supervisor validation (an aspect of LMX), team validation and perception of organizational justice (fair treatment) result in increased organizational selfinvestment and reduced turnover intention. Indeed, organizational justice has also been associated with an improved leader-member relationship (Lee, Murrmann, Murrmann & Kim, 2010).
When discussing organizational culture, it is important to consider national culture too. Abrams and colleagues (1998) compared the individualistic culture of the UK with the collectivist culture of Japan. They showed that while organizational membership was through social identification for both cultures, the collectivist culture was a psychological anchor that made the employee more committed to the organization and discouraged turnover intention. The individualistic culture made employees less concerned about the problems the organization would have should they leave. These findings resonate with the work of Besser (1993) on Toyota employees in Japan and in the US, and were later expanded to multiple cultures including a European-wide study (Vandenberghe, Stinglhamber, Bentein & Delhaise, 2001). Thus, commitment to the organization is also dependent on the national culture of both the organization and the talent. In fact, national culture has been shown to impact on most if not all the factors leading to turnover (Shao, Rupp, Skarlicki & Jones, 2013; Sturman, Shao & Katz, 2012; Taras, Kirkman & Steel, 2010).