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III-nitride semiconductors and their modern devices

Development of the nitride-based UV/DUV LEDsIntroductionEfficiency limiting processInternal quantum efficiencyCurrent injection efficiencyLight extraction efficiencySummaryReferencesThe homoepitaxial challenge: GaN crystals grown at high pressure for laser diodes and laser diode arraysIntroductionThermodynamics of GaNMelting conditions of GaNHigh-pressure thermodynamics of GaN: phase diagramsCrystal growth of GaNGaN by HVPEHigh-nitrogen-pressure solution growth of GaNAmmonothermal growth of GaNEpitaxy of nitrides on single-crystalline HNPS GaN: early resultsGrowth conditions for PAMBEThe role of threading dislocations and miscut angle on surface morphology in low-temperature PAMBEThe growth of high-In-content InGaN layers by PAMBEThe influence of the growth conditions on the optical properties of InGaN QWsOptical lasing from InGaN QWsLaser diodes“Plasmonic” GaN substrates and their use for lasersLaser diode arrays on laterally patterned substratesBackgroundLaser diode arrays on laterally patterned HNPS GaN substratesHigh-power lasers and arrays on Ammono and HNPS GaN substratesSummary and conclusionsReferencesEpitaxial growth and benefits of GaN on siliconIntroductionThe GaN-on-silicon challengesLattice mismatchThermal mismatchMeltback etchingPlastic substrate deformationVertical conductivitySeed layer growthStress managementStress management by Al(Ga)N layersBuffer layerInterlayersDopingSelective growthDislocation reductionLight-emitting diodesElectronicsRF transistorsHV transistorsLimits of GaN-on-Si MOVPE technology and new developmentsLimits of GaN-on-Si MOVPE technologyNew developmentsSemipolar GaNPhotovoltaic solar cellsMicro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)ReferencesThe growth of bulk aluminum nitrideIntroductionBulk AlN: a pathway to high-quality AlGaNGrowth of AlN crystalsPhysical vapor transportHydrid vapor phase epitaxySolution growthSeeding of AlN crystal growthProperties of state-of-the-art bulk AlNStructural propertiesOptical properties and impuritiesApplications and devicesProperties of AlN and AlGaN epitaxial layers on AlNDevices on bulk AlN substratesOutlookReferencesEpitaxial growth of nitride quantum dotsIntroductionGaN quantum dotsMolecular beam epitaxyMetalorganic vapor phase epitaxyGrowth on non-polar and semipolar planesInxGai_xN quantum dotsPhase separation and In segregation effectsStranski-Krastanow growth modeSpontaneous quantum dot formation in InGaN layersThermal annealing and surface pre-treatment methodsInN quantum dotsSite-selective growthSummaryReferencesProperties of InAlN layers nearly lattice-matched to GaN and their use for photonics and electronicsIntroductionGrowth and structural properties of bulk InAlN layersGrowth characteristics of InAlN filmsStructural properties of bulk InAlN layersOptical and electronic properties of bulk InAlN layersOptical features of GaN/InAlN quantum wellsNearly lattice-matched InAlN/(Al)GaN distributed Bragg reflectorsGrowth propertiesOptical propertiesApplicationsInAlN cladding layers for edge-emitting lasersInAlN/GaN high electron mobility transistorsGrowth of InAlN/GaN high electron mobility heterostructuresInAlN/GaN HEMTs for high-frequency applicationsPower performance of InAlN/GaN HEMTsEnhancement-mode InAlN/GaN HEMTsConclusionReferencesGrowth and optical properties of aluminum-rich AlGaN heterostructuresIntroductionGrowth of Si-doped AlGaN on AlN/sapphire templatesGrowth of Si-doped AlGaN/AlGaN multiple-quantum wellsFabrication of AlGaN MQWs for electron-beam target for deep-ultraviolet light sourcesConclusionsReferencesOptical and structural properties of InGaN light-emitters on non-polar and semipolar GaNSpontaneous and piezoelectric polarization in InGaN/GaN quantum wells on c-plane, semipolar, and non-polar crystal orientationsPerformance characteristics of violet, blue, and green (0001) c-plane InGaN quantum well LEDs and laser diodesGrowth of non-polar and semipolar GaN buffer layers for device applicationsGrowth of GaN on low-defect bulk GaN substratesGrowth of GaN on planar heteroepitaxial substratesStrategies for defect reduction for heteroepitaxially grown GaNGrowth of InGaN layers and quantum wells on m-plane and different semipolar surfaces, i.e. (1012), (1011), (2021), (1122)Indium incorporation efficiency for different surface orientationsOptical properties of non-polar and semipolar InGaN QWsPerformance characteristics of non-polar and semipolar InGaN QW LEDsExternal quantum efficiencies and emission wavelengthPolarization effects and efficiency droopPerformance characteristics of non-polar and semipolar InGaN QW lasersGain characteristics of InGaN quantum-well lasers on non-polar and semipolar GaN and effects of the excitation stripe orientationFabrication of laser cavities (e.g., etched, cleaved facets)State-of-the-art of non-polar and semipolar InGaN laser diodesSummary and outlookReferencesGaN-based single-nanowire devicesIntroductionNanowire synthesisCatalyst-induced NW growthCatalyst-free NW growthEnergy conversionPhotoconductive detectionPhotovoltaicsEnergy harvesting via piezoelectric effectsNanoelectronicsGaN NW field-effect transistorsGaN NW single-electron transistorsGaN/AlN/AlGaN core-shell NW high-electron-mobility transistorsGaN/AlN axial-heterostructure resonant tunneling devicesGaN/AlN axial-heterostructure single-electron transistorsSensoricsConclusionsReferencesAdvanced photonic and nanophotonic devicesPlanar microcavitiesLinear regime: basicsLinear regime: resultsNon-linear regime: 6asicsNon-linear regime: resultsPhotonic crystalMicrodisksNanowiresConclusionReferencesNitride-based electron devices for high-power/high-frequency applicationsRelevant GaN properties for electron devicesGaN two-terminal devicesHigh-breakdown Schottky diodesBipolar GaN diodes (p-n or p-i-n)Gunn diodesTunnel diodesBipolar junction transistors and heterojunction bipolar transistors (BJT and HBT)Field-effect transistorsHigh-frequency GaN-based HEMTs for RF and mixed-signal applicationsLateral GaN high-voltage power transistorsVertical GaN power transistorsConclusionReferencesIntersubband transitions in low-dimensional nitridesIntroductionIntersubband transitions in nitride heterostructures: theoretical aspectsEffective-mass approximationBand non-parabolicityHartree approximationInternal electric fieldBand bendingMany-body effectsOptical properties of intersubband transitionsIntersubband spectroscopy of nitride quantum wells and quantum dotsNear-infrared intersubband absorption in polar GaN/AlN quantum wellsIntersubband transitions in In-containing heterostructuresCoupled GaN/AlN quantum wellsMid-infrared intersubband absorption in AlGaN/GaN quantum wellsTuning ISB transitions to the terahertz frequency domain in polar GaN/AlGaN (quantum wellsIntersubband transitions in semipolar GaN/AlN quantum wellsIntersubband transitions in cubic GaN/Al(Ga)N quantum wellsIntersublevel absorption in GaN/AlN quantum dotsGaN-based intersubband light modulatorsAll-optical switchesElectro-optical modulatorsGaN-based intersubband photodetectorsQuantum well infrared photodetectorsQuantum dot infrared photodetectorsQuantum cascade photodetectorsGaN-based intersubband light emittersISB light generation in GaN-based QWs through non-linear- optical processesIntraband emission of GaN-based quantum dots via a resonant Raman processIntersubband luminescent devicesTowards THz quantum cascade lasersConclusionsReferencesThe slow light in gallium nitrideIntroductionSlow light: history and recent studiesGroup velocity in a medium with optical dispersionLight propagation in semiconductors near excitonic linesElectromagnetically induced transparency and other effectsLight scattering and diffusionTwo mechanisms of light transfer in GaN: ballistic and diffusiveOptical dispersion in a medium with several resonances of free and bound excitonsDiffusive propagation of light and resonant photon scattering by bound excitonsTime-of-flight spectroscopy of light propagating through GaN crystalsExcitonic parameters of wide-gap semiconductorsDistortion of optical pulse near excitonic resonancesConcluding remarksReferencesNitride devices and their biofunctionalization for biosensing applicationsIntroductionConfigurations of nitride devices for sensingFunctionalization of nitridesSensing examples with nitride-based devicesReferencesHeterovalent ternary II-IV-N2 compounds: perspectives for a new class of wide-band-gap nitridesIntroductionHistory and crystal growthCrystal structure and symmetrySymmetryLattice constantsThermodynamic stabilityElectronic structureComputational methodsBand-structure overviewEffective-mass HamiltoniansLattice dynamicsComputational methodVibrational modes at the zone centerPhonon dispersions and density of statesInfrared spectroscopyRaman spectroscopyElastic and piezoelectric tensorsTheoretical considerationsValues for nitridesSpontaneous polarizationOptical propertiesIndices of refractionUV dielectric functionsNon-linear opticsDefectsOutlookReferencesTerahertz emission in polaritonic systems with nitridesIntroductionExcitonsExciton-polaritonsPolariton-based terahertz emittersUpper-to-lower polariton transitionTHz emission by 2p-exciton to 1s-polariton transitionDipolariton THz emissionConclusionReferences
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