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Ethics in Islam: Friendship in the Political Thought of al-Taw??d? and his Contemporaries

Studying political ethics and society in the Islamic contextMethodological framework: The concept of the social imaginaryThe relation of images to oneselfProductive versus reproductive imaginationThe ways in which social imaginaries can be transformed through politicsThe role of the intellectual in societyNotesThe Biiyid social imaginary. Social and cultural contextsBiiyid political identityThe BUyids and the structure of societySocial structure and the nature of social agentsMen of the regime, the Daylam and Turkish groupsProfession-based groupsClerksMerchantsNeighbourhood-based groupsIntellectual practices and groupsCourt-based groupsKnowledge-based groupsCross-discipline groups and their concern for social cooperationConclusionNotesAl-TawhldFs historical and ethical background. The continuity of religion, philosophy, and politicsAl-Tawh-dfs birth, provenance, and deathAl-TawhldFs religious doctrineAl-Tawhldl’s religious affiliations and early trainingMoral sources and the role of knowledgeA return to the example of the Prophet and the early Muslim communityThe proper use of ‘arabiyyaAl-TawhldFs affiliation with philosophical circlesAl-Tawh idi’s treatise on the Classification of Knowledge (Risala f- al-‘Ulum)Human actionAl-TawhId-,s political affiliations and his relations with different Biiyid viziersAl-Tawhid- at the court of RayyAt the court of Abu al-Fadl b. al-‘Am IdAt the court of Abu al-Fath b. al-‘Am IdAt the court of Ibn ‘AbbadAl-Tawh-d- at the court of Ibn Sa‘danConclusionNotesAl-TawhldFs al-Sadaqa wa al-Sadlq. The question of patronage and the intended audience of the epistleEditions of al-Sadaqa wa al-SadiqThe historical context of the epistleThe date of composition and al-Tawhidi’s patronsThe preface and the intended recipientsZayd b. Rifa‘aIbn Sa‘danIbn Sa‘dan’s circle and its importance for the reception of al-Sadaqa wa al-SadlqPatronage in the second period of compositionComparison between the preface and the Risala ila al-Qiidl Ab- SahP6An overview of the content of the letter to Abu SahlThe preface in the context of the letter to Abu SahlConclusion: multivalency and al-Sadaqa wa al-SadiqNotesSadaqa and the social imaginaryThe compositional nature of sadaqaWho is eligible for Sadaqa in society?Friendship and kingsFriendship and land-owners and merchantsFriendship of the lower classes (‘Ayyariin)Eligibility for friendshipSadaqa as a means for governanceThe practical techniques and moral model for the implementation of sadaqaCodes of behaviour between friends (e.g. the man of authority and the man of knowledge)Tools for governance: A model to be imitatedThe moral virtues and refinement of the ruler-friendGenerosity and hospitalityForgivenessOffering helpLove (mahabba)ConclusionNotesFriendship and love as paths to spiritual perfectionFriendship and love as paths to the refinement of man’s soulThe purification of the soul (tazkiyyat al-nafs)Where does the knowledge of the soul come from?The divine origin of friendship and loveThe nature of the leadership that could maintain a virtuous societyConclusionNotesBibliography

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