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Profession-based groups

Another way in which people in Buyid society shared loyalties of mutual interest and identified themselves with one group was on the basis of a common profession.56 Two important profession-based groups in Buyid society were clerks and merchants (tujjar).51


In addition to their reliance on the long-established nobility of the Daylam and Gil tribes, the Buyids also fostered the careers of different officials and clerks whose responsibility was to strengthen the foundation of the dynasty. The clerks did not always act sympathetically towards each other, and were divided into different internal factions since they were easily manipulated by Buyid rulers, but they still believed in their mutual interest.58 The relationships of these professional clerks to their Buyid patrons were based on mutual interests, and governed by ‘the ethics of nima (blessing).’ While the clerks depended on the Bu- yids to provide them with a livelihood and social recognition, they in turn supported them in establishing their kingdom.

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