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Glossary

Japanese entries

Akasen 赤線 official red-light districts in postwar Japan; the 1958 anti-Prostitution Law abolished them

Aoru あおる to follow another vehicle at an unsafe distance; tailgate

Arubaito アルバイト part-time work performed by young people who are either still in school or who have not yet secured a regular job

Atariya あたりや accident faker

Baburu sedai バブル世代 cohort of Japanese who came of age during the economic “bubble” in the late 1980s and early 1990s

Baishun Bōshi Hō 売春防止法 anti-Prostitution Law of 1958 (baishun refers to prostitution; it literally means “the selling of spring”)

Bakkuyādo バックヤード backyard, or the backroom of a convenience store that serves as an office, rest space, and storage area

Bentō; obentō 弁当 often works of art, these Japanese-style boxed lunches are available at convenience stores, train stations, or food stalls; also prepared at home to be taken to work or school

Bōsōzoku 暴走族 “tribes” or gangs of youth who drive around in ostentatiously modified cars, including those with removed or modified mufflers; they make loud and highpitched sounds with the goal of harassing other drivers and entire neighborhoods

Bukatsudō 部活動 extracurricular school club activities

Burakumin 部落民 caste-like minority of ethnic Japanese that has suffered long-standing discrimination in Japan

-chan ちゃん affectionate but polite suffix commonly attached to a child's first name

Chiiki katei 地域家庭 families in the local area

Chiiki kosodate shien kyoten, hirobagata 地域子育て支援拠点広場型 drop-incenter-style base for community-level child-rearing support

Chikara o awaseru 力を合わせる to combine powers

Chōkōrei 超高齢 the old old; usually referring to those over seventy-five or eighty

Chōnan 長男 eldest son; in the Meiji legal code, the son who would most likely inherit and carry on the family line

339 Danchi 団地 community consisting of low-rise or high-rise condo buildings

Dankai no sedai 団塊の世代 cohort of Japanese who were born within ten years after the end of world war ii (roughly between 1946 and 1954)

Dōbutsu Uranai 動物占い animal Divination, a system created by manga artist Kubo Kiriko

Eitai kuyōbo 永代供養墓 grave for an individual or unrelated individuals that requires no maintenance by successors; commonly used by people without descendants

Enryo suru 遠慮する to maintain a social distance by not depending on others

Erai hito えらいひと important person or people

Furītā フリーター part-timer; a young worker not currently engaged in education who works part-time jobs as opposed to having full-time, salaried employment

Furoku 付録 free insert giveaways found in magazines and manga

Fūzoku 風俗 public morals, often specifically sexual morals; often used as a euphemism for the sex trades

Fūzokujō 風俗嬢 woman who works in the sex trade industry

Gachi gachi de ガチガチで frozen with fear

Gakudō hoiku 学童保育 after-school day-care program gakureki shakai 学歴社会 education-credentialist society ganko oyaji 頑固親父 stubborn old man

Gatsu gatsu unten がつがつ運転 aggressive driving

Genki 元気 energetic

Gētobōru ゲートボール gateball; team-based ball game popular among the elderly in Japan

Gimu 義務 duty

Haken 派遣 shorthand for haken shain; temporary staff

Haken shain 派遣社員 worker who is employed by a dispatch company to do specific tasks at another firm for a fixed period, usually with fewer benefits than those given to regular employees or with no benefits

Hashiriya 走りや street racers who achieve an emotional high through speed

Hidari uchiwa 左団扇 to be wealthy (that is, so wealthy as to have a servant fanning you at your left hand)

Hikikomori ひきこもり the socially withdrawn; the term refers to young people who are not attending school or are unemployed and lead socially isolated lives

Himeyuri Butai ひめゆり部隊 star Lily Corps

Hitogara 人柄 personality

Hitotsu no koto ni uchikomu ひとつのことに打ち込む to devote oneself to one thing

Hoikuen 保育園 day-care center

Honne 本音 inner feelings

Ichiji azukari 一時預かり temporary drop-off child-care services

Ichioku sōchūryū shakai 一億総中流社会 all-middle-class society; a society where just about everyone is middle class; commonly used by Japanese to refer to their society during and after the high-growth economy of the 1960s until the recession of the 1990s Ie 家 the multigenerational stem family model that was the legal basis for families and households in late nineteenthand early twentieth-century Japan; a stem family household was a social unit of production and consumption that continued through time through the succession of one heir (often the eldest son) and his/her spouse, who would take over the responsibilities for the genderappropriate roles in each generation; changes to family law after world war ii eliminated the legal status of the ie, and as industrialization increasingly undermined the household as a unit of production, the economic basis for the stem family declined gradually over the twentieth century in both urban and rural areas; optional multigenerational residence continues to a limited degree for a number of practical and ideological reasons in contemporary Japan

Iebaka 家墓 family grave; a single underground structure with a single gravestone

Bearing a family's surname and accommodating multiple urns containing the cremated remains of the family dead

Ihai 位牌 ancestral tablet; often a dark, lacquered wooden tablet bearing the posthu-

Mous name of the family dead

Ikemen イケメン good looking

Ikigai 生きがい that which makes one's life worth living

Ikuji fuan 育児不安 child-rearing anxiety

Ikuji noirōze 育児ノイローゼ child-rearing neurosis

Ikuji sākuru 育児サークル mothers' voluntary social groups for child rearing

Interi インテリ educated person

Ippanshoku 一般職 clerical track or position(s) in Japanese corporations with no or few opportunities for advancement; such positions are usually given to women who are known as “office ladies”; their positions include full-benefit packages and continuous employment contracts

Ippōteki 一方的 unilateral; one-sided

Jidōkan 児童館 children's center; facility for children's welfare and healthy development based on Child welfare Law; staffed by those with appropriate qualifications to guide children who use the facility

Jojo kakusa 女々格差 “female-female disparity,” or economic and social disparity among Japanese women that began to develop in the 1980s based on women's individual educational and professional achievements

Juku 塾 extracurricular private tutorial and test-preparation schools or programs (full-time, after-school, or summer programs); for remedial or advanced tutelage to assist children in passing entrance exams for higher schooling; sometimes translated as “cram schools”

Kaigo fukushishi 介護福祉士 caregiver for the elderly infirm; literally, “caregiving welfare expert”

Kaigo hoken 介護保険 the public long-term care insurance program

Kaizen 改善 continual improvement in production through worker innovation Kakarichō 係長 sub-section chief

Kakukazokuka 核家族化 the nuclearization of the family; Japanese sociologists use this term to refer to the transition (ka) over the course of the twentieth century from a household structure based on a multigenerational stem-family model to one based on a “modern” nuclear family (kakukazoku) composed only of parents and their children

Kakusa 格差 disparity (see kakusa shakai)

Kakusa shakai 格差社会 disparity society; often used to refer to Japanese society after the 1990s

Kanji 漢字 Chinese character(s); ideograms

Kao o dashita 顔をだした showed one's face, put in an appearance; some grandparents lamented that their grandchildren merely put in an appearance on holidays or other obligatory occasions and that they thus did not have much of a relationship with them

Katei kyōiku 家庭教育 home education

Keijidōsha 軽自動車 K-cars; lightweight cars whose engines and body sizes fall within specified limits and are taxed at a lower rate than other cars

Keppekishō 潔癖性 very neat and tidy person; a compulsively tidy person

Ketsueki-gata uranai 血液型占い indigenous Japanese divination system based on blood type

Kodokushi 孤独死 dying alone; refers to the death of a socially isolated person; often used to convey waning community and social ties in contemporary Japan

Kodomo Gikai 子供議会 Children's Council

Kōen debyū 公園デビュー park début; the occasion on which a (new) mother takes her young child to a park for the first time; a rite of passage for the mother and the child to join other parents and children in the neighborhood

Kokoro 心 heart

Kokoro no kyōiku 心の教育 education of the heart

Kokusaika 国際化 internationalization

Komori 子守り nursemaids

Konbini コンビニ Japanese abbreviation for the english term “convenience store” konkatsu 婚活 spouse-hunting activities; shortened form of kekkon katsudō (marriage activities), which refers to the practice of actively searching for a spouse

Through participating in matchmaking and dating activities

Mamatomo ママ友 “mom friends”; a mother's friends who are also mothers

Mazushii kokoro 貧しい心 literally, to have a poor heart; to be miserable, to feel one has no love to spare for anyone

Meiwaku 迷惑 nuisance or bother to others

Mikirihanbai 見切り販売 “time sales”; the practice of discounting food items nearing their consume-by date

Miko 巫女 female shintō shrine attendant

Mottainai もったいない literally, “what a waste” or “what a shame”; a phrase of Buddhist origin used to express pity or dismay when something is not properly used, cared for, or appreciated

Nenjūmukyū 年中無休 open twenty-four hours per day, all year round; the hallmark

Of convenience store operations

Nikushokukei joshi 肉食系女子 carnivorous women; media-generated term that describes women who purportedly actively pursue sex and marriage

Nobi-nobi のびのび carefree, without inhibition noro noro unten のろのろ運転 lethargic driving obentō お弁当 see bentō

Oden おでん hot stew containing various hearty marinated ingredients; popular in winter months but thanks to convenience stores, now available year-round

Okusan 奥さん literally, “person in the interior”; the housewife, especially as counterpart to a salaried-employee husband

Omake おまけ gift or service used to curry favor with customers

Omiai お見合い arranged meetings; meetings arranged for the purpose of helping women and men find a spouse

Omikuji おみくじ paper lottery oracles sold at temples and shrines

Omote 表 front stage, the public arena

Onigiri おにぎり rice ball; Japan's convenience store industry is credited with industrializing this compact food and helping make it a favorite

Onmyōji 陰陽師 literally, “yin yang master”; a wizard or sorcerer

Osanazuma 幼妻 young wife oshieai 教え合い peer learning otenba お転婆 tomboy

Otokoyaku 男役 female specialists in male roles; associated with the takarazuka (all-female) theater

Otsukaresama お疲れさま thank-you for your hard work

Parasaito shinguru パラサイトシングル parasite singles; unmarried adults who live with their parents

Pāto パート irregular employee; one without the benefits associated with regular employment and with much lower wages; may or may not work part time

Purikura プリクラ literally, print club”; automated photo sticker machines

Raku 楽 easy; comfortable

Rojōseikatsusha 路上生活者 literally, “person/people living on the street”; often used as an alternative to terms like “homeless person” or “vagrant”

Rosu ロス literally, loss; a term commonly used in Japan's consumer industry to refer to food products that are nearing or have reached their expiration date and are removed from store shelves for disposal in some form

Rosu chāji ロスチャージ literally, “loss charge”; a royalty fee embedded in the price of a product that, under Japan's current convenience store practices, the franchise owner pays when a food item is not sold and is subsequently discarded Sābisu zangyō サービス残業 unpaid overtime

Saigo made ganbaru 最後まで頑張る to persevere to the end

Seishain 正社員 regular staff; staff with corporate benefits packages and job security

Sengyō shufu 専業主婦 full-time homemakers

Senmongakkō 専門学校 post–high school two-year technical school

Senmonshoku 専門職 specialist positions in Japanese corporations requiring technical expertise

Shizensō 自然葬 ash-scattering ceremony; a mortuary practice that is considered to return the remains of the deceased to nature without damaging the environment; the mortuary practice coined and promoted by the Grave-Free Promotion society

Shōhikigen 消費期限 consume-by date

Shōmikigen 賞味期限 best-before date

Shunin 主任 level of supervisor before sub-section chief

Shūshoku katsudō 就職活動 job-hunting activities that generally take place during a student's third and fourth year at university

Sōgōshoku 総合職 professional track or position(s) in Japanese corporations with opportunities for advancement

Sōgō-teki na Gakushū 総合的な学習 integrated studies

Sōshokukei danshi 草食系男子 herbivorous men; media-generated term that describes men who purportedly are not actively interested in sex and marriage

Sosō no Jiyū O susumeru Kai 葬送の自由をすすめる会 Grave-Free Promotion society of Japan (GFPs)

Soto 外 outer; outside

Tatemae たてまえ outer display

Teikei 提携 face-to-face relationship between producers and consumers developed in the 1970s in the domain of organic agriculture in Japan as a resistance against the market; it is a non-market form of community-supported agriculture

Tekazashi てかざし healing technique in Mahikari-kyō (a religious sect) involving the raising of the palm of the healer's hand to emit spiritual light

Tsudoi no hiroba つどいの広場 drop-in play centers where parents and preschoolers gather and socialize; supported by the state to build a sense of community and networks among parents and their young children

Tsudoi no hiroba jigyō つどいの広場事業 national drop-in center project initiated by the state to build drop-in play centers for parents and their preschoolers in their communities

Tsukaisute shakai 使い捨て社会 disposable society

Tsunagari つながり links; connections

Tsunageru つなげる to connect

Uchi うち inner; inside

Ura 裏 back stage, the private arena

Uranai 占い divination Uranai būmu 占いブーム divination boom

Yakeato sedai 焼け跡世代 cohort of Japanese who spent their childhood in the “burnt ruins” immediately after world war ii

Yasuda Mutsuhiko 安田睦彦 founder of the Grave-Free Promotion society

Yorozuya 万屋 general store; it was common in many parts of Japan during the 1960s and 1970s; it is uncommon in tokyo today

Yuzuri-ai 譲り合い mutual giving way

English entries

Angel Plan (1995–1999) エンゼルプラン

Child and Child-rearing support Plan (2005–2009) 子供子育て応援プラン

The Democratic Party of Japan 民主党

Equal employment Opportunity Law of 1986 (eeOL) 雇用機会均等法

Family support services ファミリーサポートサービス

Hyōgo Prefecture 兵庫県

Japanese Organic agriculture association (JOaa) 日本有機農業研究会

Kanagawa Prefecture 神奈川県

Kindergartens 幼稚園

Kyushu 九州

Lehman shock (of 2008) リーマンショック

Liberal Democratic Party of Japan 自由民主党(自民党)

Life-time employment 終身雇用

Lost Decade 失われた十年

Ministry of education and science; Ministry of education, Culture, sports, science, and technology (MeXt) 文部科学省

Ministry of Health, Labor, and welfare (MHLw) 厚生労働省

Musashino City 武蔵野市

New angel Plan (2000–2004) 新エンゼルプラン

Oil shock オイルショック

Osaka City 大阪市

The postwar period 第二次世界大戦後、1945年− three-year-old health examinations 三歳児検診 salaryman サラリーマン

Seniority-based wage 年功序列賃金

Suye village 須恵村

Yamada Masahiro 山田昌弘

Yamagata Prefecture 山形県



ContributorS

Peter Cave is Lecturer in Japanese studies at the University of Manchester. He is the author of Primary School in Japan (routledge, 2007) and most recently “Japanese Colonialism and the asiaPacific war in Japan's History textbooks: Changing representations and their Causes” (Modern Asian Studies 47, no. 2 [2013]: 542–580).

Satsuki kawano is associate Professor of anthropology at the University of Guelph, Canada. Her research interests include ritual, death and dying, aging, family and kinship, and child rearing. She is the author of Ritual Practice in Modern Japan (University of Hawai'i Press, 2005) and Nature's Embrace: Japan's Aging Urbanites and New Death Rites (University of Hawai'i Press, 2010).

Sawa kurotani is Professor of anthropology at the University of redlands, California. Her primary areas of scholarly interest have been globalization, gender, and Japanese studies, as exemplified in her first book, Home Away Home: Japanese Corporate Wives in the United States (Duke University Press, 2005). Her current research centers on the lived work experience of Japanese female professionals and the impact of the social, economic, and legal changes in the Japanese workplace. She also has a monthly column in Daily Yomiuri, one of the largest english-language dailies published in Japan.

Susan orpett long received her PhD in anthropology from the University of illinois, Urba-

Na-Champaign. She served as John Carroll University's first coordinator of east asian studies and is currently Professor of anthropology there. Her research interests include comparative medical systems, family change, care of the elderly, and the cross-cultural study of bioethical issues. She is the author of Final Days: Japanese Culture and Choice at the End of Life (University of Hawai'i Press, 2005) and Family Change and the Life Course (Cornell University east asia Papers, 1987). She edited Lives in Motion: Composing Circles of Self and Community in Japan (Cornell University east asia Papers, 1999) and Caring for the Elderly in Japan and the U.S.: Practices and Policies (routledge, 2000).

Gordon mathews is Professor of anthropology at the Chinese University of Hong Kong. Among other books, he has written What Makes Life Worth Living? How Japanese and Americans Make Sense of Their Worlds, Global Culture/Individual Identity: Searching for Home in the Cultural Supermarket, and Ghetto at the Center of the World: Chungking Mansions, Hong Kong, and he co-edited Japan's Changing Generations: Are Young People Creating a New Society?

Laura miller is ei'ichi shibusawa-seigo arai endowed Professor of Japanese studies and Professor of anthropology at the University of Missouri–st. Louis. She has published widely on Japanese Popular culture and language, including topics such as the wizard boom, girls' slang, and print club photos. She is the author of Beauty Up: Exploring Contemporary Japanese Body Aesthetics (University of California Press, 2006) and co-editor (with Jan Bardsley) of Bad Girls of Japan (Palgrave, 2005). She also co-edited (with Jan Bardsley) Manners and Mischief: Gender, Power, and Etiquette in Japan (University of California Press, 2011) and (with alisa Freedman and Christine yano) Modern Girls on the Go: Gender, Mobility, and Labor in Japan.

Karen nakamura is a cultural and visual anthropologist at yale University whose research focuses on disability and minority social movements in contemporary Japan. Her first book, Deaf in Japan: Signing and the Politics of Identity (Cornell University Press, 2006), was awarded the John whitney Hall Prize from the association for asian studies. Her second book, A Disability of the Soul: An Ethnography of Schizophrenia and Mental Illness in Japan, was published in 2013 (Cornell University Press). She is currently working on a project involving the intersections of disability and sexuality.

Lynne y. Nakano received her doctorate in anthropology from yale University and is a professor in the Department of Japanese studies at the Chinese University of Hong Kong. Her research focuses on the emergences of new social identities in east asian societies, including volunteers in Japan and single women in Japan and urban China. Her current research compares the experiences of single women in tokyo, Hong Kong, and shanghai. She is the author of Community Volunteers in Japan: Everyday Stories of Social Change (routledge, 2004).

Glenda S. Roberts, who received her doctorate in cultural anthropology from Cornell University, is Professor and Director of international studies at waseda University, Graduate school of asiaPacific studies. Her research focuses on gender, work, and family in contemporary Japan, as well as on immigration policy and the reception of newcomer foreign residents in Japan. Her publications include “salary women and Family well-Being in Urban Japan” (Marriage and Family Review 47 [2011]: 571–589) and Staying on the Line: Blue-Collar Women in Contemporary Japan (University of Hawai'i Press, 1994).

Nancy rosenberger has a PhD in cultural anthropology from the University of Michigan and is a professor of anthropology at Oregon state University. She specializes in gender, food, and cultural change in northeast and Central asia. She is the author of Gambling with Virtue: Japanese Women and the Search for Self in a Changing Nation (University of Hawai'i Press, 2001) and Seeking Food Rights: Nation, Difference, and Repression in Uzbekistan (Cengage Learning, 2012). Rosenberger participates in food system activism in Oregon with a focus on local food for low-income people.

Joshua Hotaka roth is Professor of anthropology at Mount Holyoke College. He is the author of Brokered Homeland: Japanese Brazilian Migrants in Japan (Cornell University Press, 2002). His research on car cultures in Japan extends to the history of driving manners; discourses about emotions and driving; and Japanese map culture, sense of place, and way finding.

Gavin Hamilton whitelaw is associate Professor of anthropology at international Christian University (iCU) in tokyo. He is also the coordinator of iCU's Japan studies Program. In 2004–2005, he conducted ethnographic research on Japanese convenience stores, communities, and small shop culture. In 2013, he curated a special exhibition on convenience store material culture for iCU's yuasa Memorial Museum. He is currently revising a book manuscript titled “at your Konbini.” Index

Topics in this index refer to the nation of Japan, unless otherwise noted. Topics and titles beginning with numbers are listed as though spelled out. For example, the “3/11 earthquake” is listed under “t”. Tables are indicated by “t.” Following the page number. Page numbers in italic type refer to figures. Abe, aya, 290

Abe sumi and abe Jin, 183

Academic achievement and social class, 289–291 academic assessment, individual, 280; high school

Entrance exams, 284; national academic achievement tests, 295n1; prefectural public high school exam, 283–284. See also private tutorial and test preparation (juku)

Afterlife, 318, 329. See also ancestors

Age discrimination, 170–171, 177

Aging, 12–18, 60, 170, 183; dependency and, 16, 52,

316, 328; of national population, 166–167, 230; of women (see older women)

Akademeia College, 253

Alcoholics and their spouses, 74, 307

Alexy, allison, 15, 73

All-female theater, 309–310

Alternative lifestyles, 105

Analects, recital of, 275, 276

Ancestors, honoring, 12, 20, 124, 126, 270, 327,

330; ancestral tablet or altar (ihai), 320, 322,

324–25, 341

Angel Plan/new angel Plan, 230

Animal Divination (Dōbutsu Uranai), 253–254, 340.

See also divination

Anthropological studies. See ethnographic research anti-Prostitution Law (Baishun Bōshi Hō), 205–206 anti-war messages, 282

Aoba elementary school, 275, 276, 277t.

Aoki couple (convenience store owners), 150–151, 154, 157. See also convenience stores

Asahi Shinbun (newspaper), 249, 316

Ashikari, Mikiko, 307–308

Ash-scattering ceremonies (shizensō), 316–317, 331, 344; collective, 327, 333; conventional mortuary practice and, 317, 334; familial distance and, 318. See also cremation

asian rural institute (asia Gakuin), 106, 110 aspinall, robert w., 292, 293

Automobiles. See car cultures; driving styles;

K-cars (keijidōsha); sports cars; street racers (hashiriya)

Azumi factory, 28, 29–30, 32, 36, 37, 39, 55nn6–7, 55n11

Babel (iñárritu film), 202–203, 218

Babysitters, non-family, 11, 15, 227, 239

Bachnik, Jane, 307

Belonging, sense of, 223–224, 243, 333

Benedict, ruth, 185

Bestor, theodore: Neighborhood Tokyo, 7; Routledge Handbook of Japanese Culture and Society, 20

Bethel House, 217

Binary oppositions, 305; in the cognitive structuring of space, 306, 307, 344

Birthrate, 189. See also demographic changes blood-type divination (ketsueki-gata uranai), 251,

254, 255t., 255–256, 257, 265n4, 342; theory

Of Japanese “blood” and, 265–266n4. See also

Divination (uranai)

Blue-collar family. See Fujii family Boret, sébastien, 317

Borovoy, amy, 13, 15, 74, 225, 307–308, 323

Bourdieu, Pierre, theory of habitus, 42–43, 85–86 boxed lunches (bentō, obentō), 40, 151, 156, 339 boxed lunch factory (bentō), 38–39, 54, 56n17 Brasor, Phillip, 10, 22, 249

Breast-feeding, 225, 232, 239

Brinton, Mary, 6, 14, 15, 30, 49, 52, 84, 170

Brothels, 205–206; barrier-free, 202, 207–210; “health clubs” providing sex services, 206–207. See also health clubs

“bubble economy,” 1, 3, 33, 46, 100. See also

Economic growth

Bubble generation (baburu sedai), 1, 19, 81, 84, 85;

Women of, 3, 19, 81, 83, 86, 90, 99–103

Buddhism: Buddhist-style funerals, 327, 329–330;

Priests, 70–71

Burakumin (minority) community, 282–283, 295n4, 339

Burawoy, Michael, 54

Burial, 11, 20, 317, 318, 331. See also mortuary practices

Cabinet Office of Japan, 14, 57

Capitalist market system, 4, 7, 9, 82, 111, 119, 127,

129, 180; global capitalism, 2–3, 53, 165, 180. See also consumerism; consumption; economic growth; economic recession

car cultures, 20, 300; gender metaphors and, 305t., 305–307. See also K-cars (keijidōsha); street racers (hashiriya)

Career women, 5, 19, 56n23, 89, 95, 108, 130, 204;

Of the bubble generation, 81, 83–85, 99–100; efforts to combine career and marriage, 97, 99, 166, 169, 171, 172, 179–181, 227; narratives of self-construction, 101–102; rejecting marriage for careers, 130

Caregivers: daughters (especially unmarried) as, 74, 94–95, 191–192, 325; daughters-in-law as, 192,

193, 319; diversification of, 196, 319; for the elderly, 200n2; son (especially eldest) as, 94, 317

“carnivorous women” (nikushokukei joshi), 166, 343

Cave, Peter, 10, 13–14, 20, 57n30, 269, 271, 272, 274,

275, 276, 277, 278, 280, 281, 283

Chains, 142–143, 156. See also franchise stores; retail food regulations and practices

Chiba University, 156

Chieko, wataya (deaf teen in Babel), 202–204 Child and Child-rearing support Plan, 230

Child-rearing anxiety, 226, 228, 242–243; insecurities

And stresses, 114, 225–229, 242, 243, 341 child-rearing, positive experiences, 240. See also

Networks of young mothers

Child-rearing support: commercial services, 227; critics of, 227–228; non-family caregivers (emergence and trust issues), 11, 15, 239–240, 319; pre-war family assistance disappearing, 225–227; specialists, 234, 237; state services (See also drop-in play centers), 224, 227, 230–231; structural shifts in, 227–229; studies

Of, 188, 223, 228–230. See also drop-in play centers; networks of young mothers

Children's centers (jidōkan), 228, 233 Chinese language teaching, 292

Class reproduction, 19, 45, 90, 102, 284–285; private test-preparation (juku) and, 284–285. See also social class Class-specific habitus, 86. See also habitus

Class stratification, 4, 42, 43, 54n2, 56n20, 86, 90,

127, 199, 289; disadvantaged populations, 165,

171, 216, 278, 285, 333. See also social class clerical positions and clerical-track jobs (ippan-

Shoku), 5–6, 85, 86–90, 170, 341

Cognitive structuring of space, 306, 307, 344

Collectivism, 302; collective action, 155

Communication devices, 188, 222, 248, 252 communicator, men's new role as, 64, 68

Community, 118, 221, 224, 226, 229, 276, 294; condominium community, 320–321; weakening of community ties, 221, 224, 226, 244

Constable, nicole, 181n5

Consumerism, 19, 135, 343. See also consumption; retail systems

Consumer-farmer relationships (teikei), 114–117 consumption, 8–12, 247; affluence and, 5; emerging

New services and, 8–12 convenience store diet, 146, 147, 149

Convenience stores (konbini): as a cultural form, 155–157; “food fight” among, 138, 155–156; globalizing standards, 157; just-in-time distribution practice, 142; as meeting places, 149–150; “observant participation” study of, 140, 146; super-saturation of, 138. See also franchise stores; loss (rosu) in retail businesses; retail food regulations and practices; waste (mottainai)

Cooperative relationships, 31, 120, 169; JOaa ideal

Of, 127

Corporations, 90; chains (See also franchise stores), 142–143, 156; corporate benefits, 1, 170, 344; corporate subsidiaries, 93; rules on disposal of waste (mottainai), 143. See also white-collar workers

Coulmas, Florian, 2, 200n4 cram school (juku), 284–285

Cremation, 316, 317. See also ash-scattering ceremonies (shizensō)

Criminal gangs, 308–309

Cross-generational relations: generation gap, 195– 196; grandparent-grandchild relationship, 183,

188–190, 192–195

Cultural capital (Bourdieu), 19, 42–43, 53, 95, 99,

285, 289

Cultural schemas, and metaphors, 305–306, 310–313

Culture clubs, 280

Curriculum and changes to, 272–274, 286–287, 288, 295n2. See also educational system

Cushing, Pamela, and tanya Lewis, 218n7

Dae Jang Geum (Korean film), 256 Daichi Co., 113

Daily (a convenience store): evening shift at, 135–138, 137; retail practices at, 138–140, 140,

144, 145, 147–148, 157. See also convenience stores (konbini) Daughters, 33, 47, 49, 70, 102, 122, 123, 187,

191–192; father-daughter relationship, 122,

123; married-out daughter, 12; unmarried

Daughters, 94–95, 163, 187. See also family daughter's husband as heir (mukoyōshi), 333 daughters-in-law, 11, 17, 185, 187, 199; as caregivers,

192, 193, 319

Day care center (hoikuen), 11, 32, 45, 46, 198,

235–237, 239, 340

Day laborers, 8

Death, self-sufficiency in, 329. See also mortuary practices

Death rites. See mortuary practices debates, school, 276, 292

Democratic Party, 1, 345

Demographic changes: aging of population (See also

Aging), 2, 3, 166–167, 230; declining fertility

Rates, 16, 166, 224, 230, 242; declining population, 1, 189. See also single women

Dependency, 16, 52, 328

Deregulation: of prostitution, 205; of public programs, 11, 46; workplace, 5, 11, 27

Disability: disabled rights movement, 216–217; independent living and, 213; intersections with sexuality, 202–203, 216–217; politics of, 213.

See also men with physical disabilities disadvantaged populations, 165, 171, 216, 278, 285, 333 disasters. See Fukushima nuclear Power Plant; 3/11

Earthquake; tsunami

Disparity (kakusa): female-female disparity (jojo kakusa), 6, 102, 341; income disparity, 5, 6,

14, 37–38, 86, 227, 290; male-female disparity

(danjo kakusa), 6, 55n14, 102, 180. See also

Social class

“Disparity society” (kakusa shakai) discourse, 1, 4, 289–290, 342

“disposable society” (tsukaisute shakai), 137, 344

Divination (uranai), 5, 20, 222, 250–251, 256; aes-

Thetic appeal of, 9, 222, 248, 251, 264; boom in practices of (uranai būmu), 247; female social bonding and, 9–10, 222, 251; feminization

Of, 248–251; girl culture and, 247–248, 253,

262; Goo research poll on, 252, 254–255; as

An industry, 10, 247–248, 249, 256, 264, 265;

Online sites, 252, 256, 260, 266n5; ratings of efficacy, 255. See also girl culture; occult pursuits and objects

Divination (uranai), forms of: animal systems, 253–254; based in body traits, 254; birth-datebased, 253; blood-type divination (ketsue-

ki-gata uranai), 251, 252, 254–256, 255t., 257,

265–266n4, 342; Chinese-derived, 248, 249,

251, 253, 255, 256, 257, 258, 260–261; Gun-

Dam fortune-telling, 254; Korean divination forms, 256, 266n5; older forms, 248, 254; using objects such as cards or stones, 254; western-style astrology, 248–249

Divination market, 10, 222, 256 Divination shop (wiz note), 254, 261

Division of labor: based in gender, 77, 84, 88, 102,

185; in marriage (traditional), 2, 3–5, 9, 15,

21n3, 56n9, 84, 225–226, 228; structural problem of, 244; taylorization and, 56n19, 313–314n1

Divorce, 60–61; rates of, 171 drag, driving in, 309–310

Driving styles: gender metaphors and, 300, 306–313.

See also K-cars (keijidōsha); sports cars drop-in play centers (tsudoi no hiroba), 223,

242–244, 344; assessing sustainability of child-rearing support, 243–244; comments of staff and mothers at, 233, 234, 235, 237; critics of, 228–229; events and classes at, 233, 239–240, 245n3; increasing nonprofit

Support of, 224, 229, 231, 240–244, 244n1;

Number of nationwide, 231; Ontario, Canada centers, 231; physical settings, 232–233, 232;

Quality of, 237, 241, 242, 244; specialists like doctors and social workers, 234, 237; staff members interaction with mothers, 233–237, 244–245n2; state project to develop (tsudoi no hiroba jigyō), 224, 227, 230–231; volunteers at,

229, 234, 236, 240–242. See also child-rearing; networks of young mothers

Drop-off child-care services (ichiji azukari), 241, 340 dying alone (kodokushi), 319, 342

Earthquake (2011). See 3/11 earthquake economic growth, 54n5, 107, 131; “the bubble

Economy,” 1, 3, 33, 46; the “economic miracle,”

3, 83, 86, 89; government policy and, 106,

111; opposition to, 111, 129. See also bubble generation; neoliberal economy

Economic instability, 1, 27–28

“economic miracle,” 3, 83, 86, 89. See also “bubble” economy; “bubble” generation

Economic recession, 1–2, 4, 5, 6–7, 19, 25, 43, 45,

82, 83, 269, 341; effects of changes on lifestyle

And livelihood, 6–7, 27, 43, 45, 51, 52–53, 84,

92, 130; gender structures and, 300, 310–313;

Post-bubble economy, 5, 14, 51, 84, 86, 90,

227, 294; post-2008 global economic crisis, 1,

2, 27, 345; sales of K-cars increase and, 270

Economic recovery, 3–4

Economy, trade, and industry, Ministry of (Meti), 138, 249

Educational capital, 21n3, 94, 95, 99, 100, 102 educational institutions. See elementary education;

High school education; junior high school; universities

Educational reform, 20, 291, 293–294, 296n7. See also foreign language education; “internationalization”

Educational system, 12–18, 271–272, 291, 293–295; “back to basics” effort, 293; curriculum and changes to, 272–274, 286–287, 288, 295n2; Dual structure of, 10; expenditures on, 296n8; integrated studies (sōgō-teki na Gakushū), 272, 274, 282, 293; is an index of the state of the nation, 294–295; “learning competency” concept, 42–43, 53, 285, 289; nationwide standardization and compulsory education, 285n1; pedagogical approaches, 13; teachers, 272–276, 278, 280–284, 288–289, 293–294,

295n3

Education-credentialist society (gakureki shakai), 42 “education of the heart” (kokoro no kyōiku), 273, 274,

294, 342

Education and science, Ministry of, 274, 283, 296n8; national academic achievement tests, 295n1

EeOL (equal employment Opportunity Law), 81, 83, 88, 95–99

Elder care, 11, 95, 176, 319, 342; system of, 319 elderly. See aging; older people; older women eldest son (chōnan), 12, 111–112, 341; performing

Mortuary duties, 330

Elementary education, 272–273, 274–278; curriculum, 273–274; schools, 277t.

Emotional bonds: of older people to grandchildren, 187, 192–194, 195–196. See also crossgenerational relations

Emotional development, 273, 294

Emotional support, 65, 237, 321

Employment: income and types of, 36, 55–56n15; outsourcing jobs, 4, 313; part-time work, 2,

15, 46, 63, 122, 130, 144, 164, 165, 170, 179,

241, 313, 339; seniority-based advancement

System, 1, 98, 171, 345; temporary work (hak-

En), 2, 165, 170, 179; work conditions, 5–8, 27;

Youth irregularly employed (“freeters”), 6, 213. See also lifetime employment; non-regular or irregular work; unemployment; working men; working women

Employment benefits, 38

Employment markets for single women, 163, 170–172, 177–179

English language study, 61, 291, 292

Environment (natural), 82, 107, 110, 119, 122, 128,

132, 143

Equal employment Opportunity Law. See eeOL ethnic minority (burakumin), 282–283, 295n4, 339 ethnographic research, 18–19; fieldwork techniques

And experiences, 3, 5, 21, 241, 314n2,

316–318; interviews, 18–19, 28, 61, 143–144,

163, 184, 200n2, 224, 229; participant-obser-

Vation, 18, 146–148, 158n1, 224, 229–230,

237, 250

Everyday life, 18, 65, 131, 144, 147, 269, 301, 306

Expired food, 139–140, 141, 146, 156. See also retail regulations and practices

Exploratory learning, 13, 269, 272, 276, 283, 293 extracurricular activities, 188; club activities

(bukatsudō), 280 Family, 184, 198–199; family members (see daughters; daughters-in-law; grandchildren; grandparents; husbands; in-laws; sons; wives); national law and, 185, 186; nuclearization

Of (kakukazokuka), 187–188, 342; population mobility and, 188; postwar model of breadwinner and homemaker, 2, 3–5, 9, 15, 21n3, 56n9, 84, 225–226; of pre–world war ii, 175; spousal role changes, 62, 186–187; urbanization and, 188; weakening of family ties, 186–188, 226. See also cross-generational relations; marital relationship; multigenerational households; stem family model (ie)

Family business, 3, 87, 89–90, 157, 162, 236 family caregivers. See caregivers

Family farm, 3, 186, 187, 333

Family grave (iebaka), 12, 18, 270, 317–318, 325–330,

332, 333, 341

Family support services, 229, 239, 345 farming/farmers: conventional or traditional, 109,

110, 112, 118, 125, 127; “eco-farmers,” 114. See

Also organic farmers

Fashion health clubs, 206. See also prostitution father-daughter relationship, 122, 123

Female-female disparity (jojo kakusa), 6, 102, 341 female specialists in male roles (otokoyaku),

309–310, 343

Female volunteers, 229, 234, 236, 240–242

Femininity, nurturance as, 5, 20, 319

feng shui (geomancy), 248, 255t.; Girly Feng Shui Magic Makeup, 249

Fertility rates, decline in, 16, 166, 224, 230, 242

Field, norma, 189–190

Fieldwork techniques and experiences. See ethnographic research

Fight! (takeda), 204, 217

Five-day school week, 272. See also educational system

Food: industrialization of, 157, 343; large distribution companies, 113–114; management of freshness, 136, 139, 140, 143; retail food regulations and practices; organic farming; self-sufficiency (jikyū) issue, 11, 106, 114;

Shelf life, 135

Food consumer groups (teikei), 114–117

“food fight,” 155–156. See also franchise stores food safety, insecurity over, 114, 138

Foreign language education, 61, 291–292 Four Pillars Divination, 255t.

Franchise contract, 8–9, 82, 136, 141

Franchise stores, 8, 137, 138, 142–143, 152, 155–156

Freshness, management of, 136, 139, 140, 143

Frustration, 72, 241; around women's status, 75, 175;

Economic, 6–7, 241–242 Fu, Huiyan, 2, 55n6

Fuel efficiency, 270. See also K-cars (keijidōsha) Fujii, Masao, 317

Fujii family: ami (daughter), 47–48, 54; atsuko (daughter), 45–47; blue-collar family of Kansai, 25, 28–29, 39–42; Masaji (husband and father; his illness and death), 30–32, 39, 52; meeting and marriage of sachi and Masiji, 30–32; sachi (mother and wife) (see Fujii sachi); social class across generations, 42–45; upwardly mobile aspirations, 32–33; yūji (son), 49–52, 54, 57n29

Fujii sachi (blue-collar wife and mother): her concerns over the past and future, 52–53; her efforts to progress on the job, 33–37; her life as an irregular employee, 37–39; her rural to urban migration, 29–30; meeting Masiji and marriage, 30–32. See also Fujii family

Fukushima nuclear Power Plant: explosion, 1, 127; radioactive contamination concerns, 107, 114,

127–128, 131, 132n4

Full-time homemakers, 21n3, 56n19, 63, 172, 174 Furuichi, noritoshi, and tuuka toivonen, 6

Genda yūji, 51

Gender and work. See working women

Gender ideologies and schemas, 304–310, 312, 313,

318; gender metaphors, 300, 310–313; K-cars and gender, 305t., 305–307

Gender-segregated roles: lessening of, 62–67, 77–78, 306; as breadwinner and homemaker (postwar marriage ideal), 2, 3–5, 9, 15, 21n3, 56n9, 84,

225–226

Generation gap, 6, 195–196. See also crossgenerational relations

GFPs. See Grave-Free Promotion society of Japan (GFPs)

Giddens, anthony, 4

Gill, tom, 8

Girl culture: aesthetic tastes, 9, 222, 248, 251, 264;

Interest in divination (uranai), 247–248, 253,

262; leisure and social bonding, 9–10, 222,

251, 256–258. See also divination (uranai); namco namja town

Glass ceiling, 34, 85, 99

Global capitalism, 2–3, 53, 165, 180. See also capitalist market system

Global consumer culture, 129, 155

Global food system, 114–115, 119, 131–132

Globalization, 2–3, 83, 269

“golden eggs” (kin no tamago), 30, 54n5

Goo research poll, 252, 254–255. See also divination (uranai)

Government economic policy, 106, 111, 157 grandchildren, meaning of (to older generation),

184–186, 187–188, 190–192, 199; providing

Caregiving assistance, 192–195

Grandparent-grandchild relationship, 183, 185–186,

188–190, 196–198; co-residence, 191–192;

Emotional bonds, 196–198; living proximity and, 188

Grandparents, maternal or paternal, 187 Grave-Free Promotion society of Japan (GFPs), 316–317, 326–327, 329, 331, 345; fieldwork

Conducted at, 317; members' self-perceptions, 333–334

Grief, traumatic, 37, 203

Habitus, 83, 90, 103, 145; Bourdieu's theory of,

42–43, 85–86; family habitus, 43 Hadashi no Gen (Barefoot Gen), 281 Hamamatsu, shizuoka Prefecture, 300, 304 handbooks on contemporary Japan, 20 Harada Masafumi, 226, 228

Harassment on the job, 37, 98

Hashimoto, akiko, and John traphagan, Imagined Families, Lived Families, 20, 319

“health clubs” (sex services), 206–207; not accepting disabled men, 213–214

Health examinations, for three-year olds, 234, 237, 345

Health, Labor, and welfare, Ministry of, 2, 17, 166,

181n1, 181, 227, 231–232

Heir: daughter's husband as (mukoyshi), 333; eldest son as (commonly), 12, 120, 185, 191, 341

Higashi, Julie, 273

High-school educated women, 44, 169, 175

High school education: academic performance differentiation in, 285–286; curriculum, 286–287; discipline at, 288–289; school as a “moral community,” 288; schools, 287t.

“high-skill society,” 42

Himeyuri Butai (star Lily Corps), 281, 282, 340

History studies, 286, 288

Holloway, susan, 224

Holthus, Barbara, 15, 227, 239 “home education” (katei kyōiku), 227

homeless people (rojōseikatsusha), 148, 225, 343 Hook, Glen D., and Hiroko takeda, 2

Hosoki Kazuko, 253

Hot-K magazine, 311, 312. See also K-cars (keijidōsha)

Housing allowances, 1

Human capital, 42–43

“human pyramids,” 277 “human rights education,” 282

Husbands: erosion of breadwinner role, 62–64; extramarital affairs, 75; increased participation in household work , 40–41, 54n3, 61, 62, 63, 67,

75–76, 228; marital satisfaction, 73; relational

Expectations of, 64–66, 75, 77; valued for

Status and income, 21n3, 61, 71, 72, 102, 169.

See also family; men's experiences

I-Ching, 254, 260

Ichiraku. See teruo, ichiraku identity, 107–108

ikegaoka High school, 286, 287t., 289

Imamura, anne, Re-imaging Japanese Women, 21 immigration, 3 Iñárritu, alejandro González, Babel, 202–203, 218 income: average, 55n14; of individuals and families,

3–4, 31–32, 37, 38, 44, 46, 50–51, 56n27, 95,

129; low-income population, 243, 282–286;

Marital experiences and, 63, 66, 71–73,

152–153, 169–170, 227; types of employment

And, 36, 55–56n15

Income disparity, 5, 6, 14, 37–38, 86, 227, 290. See also disparity (kakusa); social class

Independence: for disabled people, 213; for older people, 11, 319, 334; as a value, 6, 8, 106, 125,

130, 165; for women, 55n7, 117, 120, 172, 174,

176, 180

Independent living centers (iLCs), 213 individualism, 301–302

Individuality, 4, 70, 274, 294

Industrialization, 186, 341; advanced industrial society (see postindustrial society); of food, 157, 343

Inequality, 272, 290, 294–295. See also income disparity

Inheritance laws, 325

Initial D (shigeno), 300–301

In-laws: daughter-in-law, 11, 17, 199; daughter-in-

Law (as caregiver), 192, 193, 319; daughter's husband as heir (mukoyōshi), 333; motherin-law/daughter-in-law relationship, 185. See also family

Inner realm (uchi), 306, 344; women's experience of, 307–308

Inoue, Haruyo, 317, 318, 333

Insecurity and uncertainty: about food, 114, 138; entrepreneurial, 139, 155; in livelihood, 2,

3–5, 8, 27–28, 84, 176, 269; marital, 167, 172,

304; over the future, 1, 53, 84, 293–294, 313;

Regarding child rearing, 114, 225–229, 242,

243, 341

Instructors, notes to, 19

Integrated studies (sōgō -teki na Gakushū), 272, 274, 282–283; reduction of, 293

Interdependence, as a value, 101, 278, 320, 328, 334

Interdisciplinary learning, 293

Internal affairs and Communications, Ministry of, 164, 166

“internationalization” (kokusaika), 291–292, 294, 342

Internet, 207, 222, 252, 254, 255, 256, 290, 302. See

Also technology

Irregular workers. See non-regular or irregular work ishida, Hiroshi, and David H. Slater, 20, 54n2,

56n20

Ishida and slater, Social Class in Contemporary Japan, 20

Ishiguro, Kazuhiko and Kieko, convenience store couple, 151–154

Isolation. See social isolation

It industry, 283. See also technology

Iwama, akiko, study of metropolitan mothers, 228 iwasaki family mansion, tokyo, 327 Japanese language lessons, 61, 275

Japan exchange and teaching (Jet) Program, 291 Jenike, Brenda robb, 9, 11, 190, 319

JOaa (Japanese Organic agriculture association), 9, 105, 110–113, 117, 118, 119–122, 124, 125;

Ideal of cooperative relationships, 127. See also

Organic farmers

Junior high school, 278–285, 279

Kagami ryūji, 254

Kakusa shakai. See “Disparity society” (kakusa shakai) discourse

Kana (organic farmer), 105–106, 108–110, 109, 111,

113, 114–116, 125–127

Kansai family. See Fujii family Kansai schools, features of, 277–278

Kariya, takehiko, 42, 285, 289, 290; and ronald

Dore, 289, 290

Kawagoe City, saitama Prefecture, 304

Kawai Kaori, Sex Volunteers, 202, 210, 213, 218

Kawano, satsuki, 188, 223, 247, 251, 270, 316,

317–318, 319, 324, 330, 332–333; fieldwork

Conducted at GFPs, 317

K-cars (keijidōsha), 10, 20, 270, 302–304, 303, 342; fuel efficiency and, 270; gender analogies of driving and, 305t., 305–309, 311–313; Hot-K

Magazine, 311, 312; interest groups about, 311; more females driving (See also women drivers), 270, 302, 308, 310; turbo-charged,

311

Kelly, william, 4, 130

Kindergartens, 45, 116, 230, 237, 240, 345

Kondo, Dorinne, 307

Korean popular culture: divination websites, 256, 266n5; influx of, 256

Korean residents, 250, 281–282

Kosugi, reiko, 52–53

Kumagai, Fumie, 73, 188, 200n4

Kumashino yoshihiko, A Hurdle of Only Five Centimeters, 215

Kuramoto tomoaki, Sexuality and Disability Studies,

216

Kurihara sumiko, 258

Kurotani, sawa, 5–6, 19, 81, 83, 85, 227

Kuyōgi, shūkei, The Abeno Seimei Codes, 263–264

Lakoff, George, 312

La Mer (sex site for disabled men), 207, 208

Lareau, annette, 42–43

“learning competency,” 42–43, 53, 285, 289 Lebra, takie s., 187–188

Lehman Brothers bankruptcy (“Lehman shock”), 1, 2, 27, 345

Lévi-strauss, Claude, 305, 314n2 Lewin, Ben, The Sessions, 203 Liberal Democratic Party, 1, 345

Life course or path (shinro), 86, 163; changes in, 12–18, 61–62, 77, 89; counter to mainstream, 82; decisions about, 45–47, 174; diversity of, 2,

7, 78, 221, 227

Life-time employment, 21n1, 63, 86–90; decline of system, 55n7, 179

Lightweight cars. See K-cars

Living alone, older persons, 316, 318, 319–320. See also single women

Local community, 1, 118, 229, 276, 294

Long, susan Orpett, 1, 11, 17, 20, 74, 161–162, 183,

197, 319, 329

Longevity, 20, 162, 190, 199, 269, 329; wishing a longlife, 329. See also older people

Long-term care insurance, 319

Loss (rosu) in retail businesses, 135, 136, 138,

150–152; chance loss logic, 141–142; de-

Commissioning unsold food, 136, 140, 146; logistics of, 138–141. See also retail system; waste (mottainai)

Lost Decade (1990s), 4, 5, 224, 271

Lyng, stephen, 301

Mahikari religion, spiritual therapy (tekazashi), 70 mainstream ideal, 4, 86, 340

Makimura, Hisako, 317

Makino Katsuko, 226

Male-female disparity (danjo kakusa), 6, 55n14, 102, 180

Male role specialists (otokoyaku), 309–310, 343 manhood. See men's experiences

Marital relationships, 12–18, 27, 78–79n3; conflicts about religion, 69–71; desirable qualities in spouses, 168–170; insecurity in, 167, 172, 304; value conflicts over children, 67–69; women now seeking emotional support in, 64–67,

72, 77, 83

Marriage: age of for women, 170, 181n2; arranged by family, 68; choice not to marry, 168, 169–170;

“M” curve, 54n2; postwar ideal of, 2, 3–5, 9,

15, 21n3, 56n9, 84, 225–226

Marriage market, 168–170; pressure on single women to marry, 161, 164, 169, 170, 176, 179

Marriage rates, 164–165; women marrying later, 167–168

Married couples. See marital relationships masculinity: and aging, 60; concept and changing

models of, 62–64, 78n2; males as aggressive, 305t., 308–309. See also men's experiences

Matanle, P. And L. Lunsing, Perspectives on Work, 20 maternity leave, 32, 55n10, 229. See also young

Mothers

Mathews, Gordon, 25, 26, 45, 60, 64, 65, 108, 169,

323

Mathews and white, Japan's Changing Generations,

20

Matsuda, shigeki, 228

Maya (bubble-generation woman): Quick news media conglomerate job, 96–98, 100; tech

Work, 91–95, 101, 102 Mayumi, takeda, 204, 218

Men's experiences, 9, 70, 164, 308–309; “being a

Man,” 60–62, 64, 67, 76–78; being valued for

Income, 71–73; devotion to family, 72, 74, 77–78; disabled or ill men (See also men with physical disabilities), 73–76; divorce and, 71–73; elderly husbands, 79n7; a “hands-on dad,” 29; history and life course, 61–62; jobs and work (see working men); new role of communicator, 64, 68; in retirement, 74–76;

Role models shifting, 26, 64–68; traditional

Breadwinner role, 2, 15, 37, 62, 64, 67, 69, 76.

See also masculinity

Men with physical disabilities, 73–76, 203, 207–210;

Sexual services for, 20, 202, 203, 210–215 metaphors and cultural schemas, 310–313 metropolitan communities, 60

Metropolitan mothers, 228

Middle-age, 5, 25, 27, 51, 61, 176, 248

Middle class: having roots in, 110; old vs. New, 7–8, 52; postwar ideal of mainstream (“all-middle-class”) society, 3–4, 7, 13, 18, 86, 90, 122, 340–341. See also economic growth; lifetime employment

Middle schools, 271

Miller, Laura, 203, 222, 247, 251, 262, 264

Mobile phones, 172, 222

“mom friends” (mamatomo), 238, 342. See also

Networks of young mothers

Moral values, 19, 20, 28–29, 142; and education, 19,

130, 274, 275, 276, 278, 282, 289; moral pan-

Ics, 202, 203, 273, 294; public morals, 205, 340; the school as “moral community,” 288–289

Mori, Kenji, 317

Mortuary practices: Buddhist-style funerals, 327, 329–330; coexistence of old and new

Practices, 334; history and diversification of, 316, 317; permanent ritual care, 317, 335n1; prearranging rites and grave plot, 329. See also ash-scattering ceremonies (shizensō); burial

Mothers' groups for child rearing. See networks of young mothers

Multigenerational households, 16–17, 122, 188; stem

Family model (ie), 191, 200n5, 341, 342

Murata, satoru, 249–250, 260 Murderball (rubin and shapiro), 203 Musashino City, 231, 345

Mutsuhiko yasuda, 316–317

My-Car era, 302

Nakamachi elementary school, 276 nakamura, Karen, 202, 204, 213

Nakane, Chie, 307

nakano, Lynne y., 66, 161, 163, 227

Namco namja town, 258, 259; soothsayer street, 258, 259

Name divination, 255t. National bureaucracies, 127 National Consumer affairs Center of Japan, 249 national institute of Population and social security

Research, 164, 168, 169

National law on the family, 185, 186. See also family national Police agency, 206–207

National policies. See angel Plan; new angel Plan Child; Child-rearing support Plan

Native blood typology system, 264n4 natural environment. See environment neighbors, ties with, 221, 226, 337

Neoliberal economy, 3, 5, 7, 37, 52, 53, 180 neoliberal sexualities. See sexuality networks of young mothers: “mom friends”

(mamatomo), 238, 342; mother's groups for child rearing (ikuji sākuru), 228; “park début” (kōen debyū), 229; peer support and, 237–239; play-center learning opportunities, 239–240; play-center spaces for, 233–234; positive

Child-rearing experiences and, 241–242. See also drop-in play centers (tsudoi no hiroba); social networks; young mothers

NGOs. See nonprofit organizations

1990s period (Lost Decade), 4, 5, 224, 271

noda, Mrs., 316, 318, 319–321, 335n2; caring for the family dead, 324–326; familial relationships, 322; her choice of cremation and ash-scattering, 316, 326–332; life of, 316, 321–323; thoughts on mortuary care, 327–328

Noir (noāru) nonprofit website, 215, 216, 218n8 non-family caregivers, 11, 15, 239–240, 319. See also

Child-rearing support

Nonprofit organizations, 156, 321; providing

Child-rearing support, 224, 229, 231, 240–244, 244n1

Non-regular or irregular work, 2, 4, 5, 6–7, 48, 241; agency work (haken), 55n6; gender asymmetry and, 16, 37–39, 48, 54, 55n7, 56n17;

Irregular employee (pāto), 29, 225, 243; many

Young people in, 6, 52, 57n29, 224; unioniza-

Tion of, 225

Noracom, cell-phone application, 253–254. See also

Divination

Nostalgia, 273, 294, 295–296n7 nuclearization of the family (kakukazokuka),

187–188, 224, 225–226, 228, 242, 342

Nuclear power fallout. See Fukushima nuclear Power Plant

Nursemaids (komori), 225, 342

Occult pursuits and objects, 20, 222, 247, 248, 249,

258, 261, 263, 264–265. See also divination

Ochiai, emiko, 14, 167, 200n4, 226 OeCD, 296n8

Ogasawara, yuko, 6, 55n12, 84, 101

Ogawa, naohiro, et. al., 16, 17, 73, 249, 291, 292

Ogura Chikako, 164, 167, 169

Ōhashi, terue, 167

Oil shocks of 1973–1974, 3 Okano, Kaori, and Motonori tsuchiya, 285–286, 295n1

Okinawa, invasion of, 281

Older children, 56n24, 186, 188, 192, 225

Older people: emotional bonds to younger generations, 187, 192–194, 195–196, 199; emotional needs and vulnerability of, 319, 321; employment discrimination against, 170; the frail elderly, 5, 20, 162, 183; increase in longevity,

20, 162, 190, 199, 269, 329; independence for,

11, 319, 334; lives of, 190–191, 200nn4–5;

Living alone, 316, 318, 319–320; the very

Old (or old old—chōkōrei), 2, 184–185, 190, 198–199, 200n1, 340; the “young old” and the “old old,” 200n1

Older women, 32, 56n17, 179, 248; disadvantaged, 165; employment discrimination against, 170, 171; and marriage, 179; as volunteers,

221–222; as workers, 6, 56n17, 165, 170–171

Old vs. New middle-class, 7–8, 52

Ōmori Miyuki, “i was a Health Delivery Girl for People with Disabilities,” 208–210, 213

Online sites: for divination, 252, 256, 260, 266n5;

Social and interest networks, 302, 303, 304,

311

Organic agriculture association. See JOaa (Japanese Organic agriculture association)

Organic farmers: life of Kana, 105–106, 108–110,

109, 111, 113, 114–116, 125–127; pioneers,

113; women as, 5, 19, 121–125. See also Kana (organic farmer)

Organic farming, 105, 108–110, 112, 114; food consumer groups (teikei), 114–117; as a lifestyle, 105, 113, 119–121; relating to the local

farming community, 125–127 Orr, James J., 282

Osaka City, 148, 260, 345

Osaka University, 148 Osawa, Mari, 2, 21n1

Outer realm (soto), 307, 344

Outsourcing jobs, 4, 313

Paid volunteers, 218n5, 241

Palmistry, 248, 255t. See also divination (uranai) paper lottery oracles, 257–258, 257

Parenting, 42, 190, 224, 239

Part-time work, 2, 15, 46, 63, 122, 130, 144, 164, 165,

170, 179, 241, 313, 339. See also employment paternal grandparents, 185. See also cross-genera-

Tional relations; family pedagogical approaches, 13

Peer learning (oshieai), 235, 274, 278, 343 people with disabilities. See disability; men with

Physical disabilities

Performance-based evaluations: academic, 285, 289;

Job-related, 2, 178

personal care attendants for disabled men, 213–214 physiognomy divination, 248, 255t., 258 Pierre Bourdieu: theory of habitus, 42–43. See also

Habitus

Pisa (Program for international student assessment), 293

Plath, David w., 14, 66, 302, 324

Point of sales (POs) terminals system, 140 politics of sexual relations, 213–215 pollution, postwar growth and, 114

Population: mobility of, 188; period of negative growth, 189. See also demographic changes

Post-bubble economy, 5, 14, 51, 84, 86, 90, 227, 294.

See also economic recession

Post-bubble generation professional women, 85–86; clerical track, 86–91; tech jobs, 91–95

Post-bubble Japan. See economic recession posthumous events: divorce, 318; naming, 329

Postindustrial society, 2, 4, 162, 224–225, 230, 301,

329. See also capitalist market system post-structuralism, 306

Post-2008 global economic crisis, 291; “Lehman shock,” 1, 2, 27, 345

Postwar period, 1, 17–18, 21n2, 86, 114, 156, 325; baby boom, 76; earlier (1960s and 1970s), 3, 12–13, 16, 143, 319, 324, 335n2; the “econom-

Ic miracle” (1980s), 3, 83, 86, 89; lifestyle and

Life course, 131, 161, 206, 319, 324, 335n2

Poverty, 84, 290

Preindustrial society, 329

Preschool, 11, 234; preschool teachers, 273

Preschoolers, 16, 20, 188, 221, 223; mothers of. See

Young mothers

Private tutorial and test preparation (juku), 284–285 professional women. See career women

Proficiency groups, 283

Proficiency-related learning, 274

Prostitution (fūzoku), 217–218; “health clubs” and sites for sex services, 206–215; licensed sex work, 205; one service for women, 207; prostitutes working with disabled people,

202–204, 208–210; red-light districts (akasen),

205, 218n1, 339; sex volunteers, 20, 202,

203, 210–212, 213; system for american occupation forces (raa), 205; voluntary and involuntary sex work, 205

Psychiatric disabilities, 217

Quick news media conglomerate, 96–98, 100

Quinn, naomi, 311–312

Raa (recreation and amusement association), 205 radioactive contamination, 107, 114, 132n4. See also

Fukushima nuclear Power Plant radish Bōya Co., 113

Recession. See economic recession religion, marital conflicts over, 69–70

Resistance, organic farming as, 107–108, 117–119 retail food regulations and practices: “best-before”

Dates, 139, 157; food waste management Programs, 156; just-in-time distribution, 142;

Management of freshness, 136, 139, 140, 143; rules on disposal of waste (mottainai), 143; “time sale reduction” (mikirihanbai), 142–143; time sale reduction practice, 142–143. See also chains; convenience stores (konbini)

Retail systems: chains, 142–143, 156; franchise contract, 8–9, 82, 136, 141; headquarters royalty fee, 142; product bar codes, 140. See also retail food regulations and practices

Retirement, 12–18, 60; early retirement, 27, 28,

36–38, 152

Rice balls (onigiri), 139, 141, 146, 151, 155, 343;

Plastic-wrapped, 157

Rice harvesting, 273

Risk taking, 301

roberts, Glenda s., 25, 27, 32, 39, 40, 44, 54n2,

55n10, 55n12, 64, 85, 95, 100, 230

Robertson, Jennifer, 309–310; A Companion to the Anthropology of Japan, 20

Roesgaard, Marie Højlund, 284

rohlen, thomas P., 10, 284, 285, 290, 291

Romantic love, 168

Ronald, richard, and allison alexy, Home and Family in Japan, 20, 200n4

rosenberger, nancy, 81, 105 rosenbluth, Francis M., 167 roth, Joshua Hotaka, 300 rowe, Mark, 317

Rubin, Henry alex, and Dana shapiro, Murderball,

203

Sachi. See Fujii sachi (blue-collar wife and mother) saito, yoshitaka, and tomoyuki yasuda, 188

Sakai Junko, The Distant Cry of Loser Dogs (Makeinu no tōboe), 166

Sakatsume shingo, 211–212, 215; The Unusual Passion of Sex Helpers (Sekkusu herupā no jinjō narazaru jōnetsu), 12

Salarymen, 3, 93, 99, 124, 345; concepts of masculinity, 78n2; and homemaker (household model), 14, 33, 42, 56n19, 108, 152; new middle-class and, 7–8. See also white-collar workers; working men

sar (netherlands) sex service, 214 sato, nancy e., 277, 289

Satoyama school, 274, 276

Schoolgirls, 21–22, 203, 251, 256 school system. See educational system

Seiko (bubble-generation professional woman), career aided by eeOL, 95–99, 101, 102

Seiler, Cotton, 301–302

Seimei, abeno, 262, 263–264

Selfhood, women's, 101–102, 302

“self-responsibility” trend, 2

Seniority-based advancement system, 1, 98, 171, 345 seniors. See older people; older women

Service sector, emerging new services, 8–12 Sessions, The (Lewin), 203 sexual harassment, 98

Sexuality, 202; “carnivorous women” (nikushokukeijoshi), 166, 343; intersections with disability,

203, 216–217; neoliberal sexualities, 214–216 sexually transmitted diseases, 205

sexual services, 162, 206–207; for disabled men, 20, 202, 203, 210–212, 210–215; in the U.s.,

217–218n3

Sex volunteers, 20, 202, 203, 210–212, 213

Shift work, 40, 55–56n15, 72, 135–138, 145, 147, 154

shimizu Kokichi, 277, 285 shimoda High school, 287t., 287

shinmachi elementary school, 272–274, 277t., 277

Shinro. See life course or path (shinro) shinto shrines, 257–258, 328–329

Shoplifting, 141

Shukuba elementary school, 275, 276–277, 277t.

Sightseeing, 258

Singlehood, 164, 168, 181n4; decline of marriage and, 162, 166, 181; gendered experience of,

164

Single men, 181n1; outnumbering single women, 166–167

Single women, 9, 15, 17, 19, 94, 163–165, 167,

179–181; choosing not to marry, 168,

169–170, 180; conflict between marriage and employment markets, 171–172; employment markets and, 170–171, 177–179; experiences and narratives of, 171–178; facing job discrimination, 177–179; marriage markets and, 168–170; “parasite singles” (parasaito shinguru), 163; perceptions of, 163, 165–168,

173; pressure to marry, 161, 164, 169, 170, 176,

179; questioning conventional paths, 174–176,

180; tokyo study of, 167–168

Single women by cohort: late twenties to early thirties, 171–173; mid-thirties age group, 174–176; over forty age group, 176–178

Sisters, 30

Six star astrology, 253, 255t. slater, David H., 284, 285, 288, 289

Small-business owners, 135; entrepreneurial uncertainties, 139, 155

Small-group teaching, 274, 283

smith, robert J., 186, 324; and ella Lury wiswell, 225

Social-bonding, 247

Social change, 20, 27, 123, 184, 186; in education (See also educational system, curriculum and changes), 13; and the family. (See also family; gender ideology and schemas; men's experiences; women), 15, 60–61; population shifts (See also demographic changes), 12; socioeconomic shifts (See also economic recession; income dispary; socioeconom-

Ic changes; workplace, changes in), 25; toward less security (See also insecurity and Uncertainty), 4; toward social differentiation (See also social class), 3–5

Social class, 18, 54n2, 56n19, 200n5, 230, 285; and academic achievement, 289–291. See also class reproduction; class stratification; disparity (kakusa)

Social isolation, 52, 94, 225; of mothers, 15–16, 224,

225, 228, 242–244

Socialization, 13, 18, 20, 187, 294

Socially disadvantaged populations, 278, 285

Socially withdrawn (hikikomori), 13, 68, 70n5, 225,

340

Social networking online, 302; Mixi interest group, 304–305, 311. See also internet

Social networks: emergence of non-kin, 226, 228–229; shrinking of traditional, 224, 228.

See also networks of young mothers “society without ties” (muen shakai), 221, 224 socioeconomic changes: shift since the 1980s, 63.

See also demographic changes; economic recession

Sons: eldest son (chōnan), 12, 111–112, 341; and

His wife as caretaker, 317; only son, 49, 52; performing mortuary duties, 330; son-inlaw as heir (mukoyōshi), 333; son preference (traditional), 33, 49. See also family

Soothsayer street, 258, 259

Space, cognitive structuring of, 306, 307, 344

Spirit writing, 263, 264

sports cars, 300, 304–305, 305t., 311 sports clubs, 57n30

“spouse-hunting activities,” (konkatsu), 166 spouses. See marital relationships spurlock, Morgan, Supersize Me, 146–147 star Lily Corps, 281, 282, 340

Stay-at-home mothers, 15, 69, 225, 228, 231, 234. See also young mothers

StDs (sexually transmitted diseases), 205 steam saunas, 206. See also prostitution

Stem family model (ie), 191, 200n5, 341, 342; ending in postwar period, 186–187

Stepchildren, 319, 320, 322, 323, 328, 330, 331, 332,

333

Strauss, Claudia, 307, 313; and naomi Quinn, 313

Street people, 148

Street racers (hashiriya), 300, 340; individualist values and, 302; street-racing culture, 300–302.

See also driving styles structural analysis, 305–306 study abroad, 291–292, 295n6 sudden-death temples, 329

Suicide, 84, 93, 226; prevention of, 225

Super english High school (seLHi) program, 291

Supersize Me (“shockumentary” ), 146 suye Mura village, 185–186

Suzuki, Hikaru, 336

Suzuki Kentarō, 246, 252, 257

Suzuki, wataru, 148 Tachibanaki, toshinori, 102

Taisho era, 254

Takarazuka theater, 309–310

Takayama, Keita, 293

takeda Mayumi, Fight!, 204, 217

Takeo, Doi, 307

Takeuchi Minoru, 154, 155

Tanaka, Katsumi, 188

tarot cards, 248, 250–251, 254, 255t., 258, 260–262,

264–265. See also divination (uranai) taxes, 126; and K-cars, 270, 310, 311 taylorization of the workplace, 301, 313–314n1 technology, 247; consumer devices and mobile

Phones, 172, 188, 222, 248, 252; it industry,

283; working woman in tech job, 91–95, 101,

102. See also internet

Temporary work (haken), 2, 165, 170, 179. See also

Employment

terakawa High school, 287t., 292 teruo, ichiraku, 125

Testing. See academic assessment, individual

Test of english as a Foreign Language (tOeFL), 291 thang, Leng, 188, 190

Theme parks, 258, 260

“three Cs,” 31, 169

3/11 earthquake, 1, 107, 110, 121, 127–128, 128, 183.

See also Fukushima nuclear Power Plant three-generational households, 16–17, 185, 186–188,

193, 319. See also multi-generational households

“three highs,” 31

Tokyo, 8, 144, 165, 177, 224, 316, 327; sumida ward,

148

Tokyo High Court, 155

Tokyo national High school, 287t. Tokyo study of child-rearing, 228–229 traditional agrarian village, 125, 130 transgender bars, 217n2

Transvestism (cross-dressing): female specialists in male roles (otokoyaku), 309–310, 343; women racers in drag, 309–310

Traphagan, John, 11, 324, 328

Trauma or grief, 37, 203

Tsuji, yohko, 317

Tsunami, 1, 127

TteC Corporation, 100

Ueno Chizuko, 212

Umesao, tadao, 7

Uncertainty and insecurity. See insecurity and uncertainty

Unemployment, 2, 6, 212; unemployment benefits,

38, 177

Unionization, 225

Universities, 290–291; lower-level institutions, 291

University-educated women, 44, 165, 190

Unmarried persons, 14, 169, 193, 224, 317; living

With parents, 16, 17, 94, 193; unmarried women (see single women) Urbanization, 188

Urban lifestyles, 135

Values. See moral values vogel, ezra, 52

Vogt, Gabriele, and Glenda s. Roberts, 3

Volunteers: at drop-in play centers (tsudoi no hiroba), 229, 234, 236, 240–242, 344; paid and unpaid,

218n5, 240–241

Wacquant, Loïc, 146

Wakamatsu (convenience store manager), 135–136, 137, 138, 145–146, 147, 154, 157

Wangan Midnight (Kusunoki), 300–301, 309 war memories, 281. See also world war ii

Waste (mottainai), 136–138, 143–144; calculation of, 142; corporate rules on disposal of, 143; and loss, 138–141, 143; recycling and consuming of, 143–145. See also loss (rosu) in retail businesses

White-collar workers, 2, 3, 35, 39, 44, 52, 54n3,

55n10, 55n12, 63, 90, 157

White Hands (sex service), 211–212, 211, 215, 217

Whitelaw, Gavin: convenience store study, 7, 8, 82,

135, 137, 140, 146–148; konbinization experi-

Ment, 146–148, 149, 150. See also convenience stores; Daily

Wilk, richard, 155

willis, David B., and stephen Murphy-shigematsu,

Transcultural Japan, 21

Willis, Paul, 86

Willoughby, Charles, 205

Wiswell, ella, 185

Wives, 3, 31, 42, 74, 129, 302, 303, 304; full-time homemaker (sengyō shufu) role, 21n3, 56n19, 63, 172, 174; going to work (See also working

Women), 3, 63, 77–78; marital expectations, 71–73. See also family; marital relationship

Women: concept of nurturance as feminine, 5, 20, 319; female volunteers, 229, 234, 236, 240–242; striving for independence, 55n7,

117, 120, 172, 174, 176, 180. See also schoolgirls; single women; wives; working women; young mothers

women drivers: gender metaphors of driving and, 305t., 305–309, 310; high-school or university

Educated, 44, 165, 169, 175, 190; of K-cars

(keijidōsha), 270, 302, 308, 310; male aggression toward, 308–309; Mixi interest group, 304–305, 311; racers in drag, 309–310

Women farmers, 5, 19, 121–125. See also organic farmers

Women of the bubble generation (baburu sedai), 3, 19, 81, 83, 86, 90; narratives of, 86–99

Working-class family. See Fujii family

Working men: factory men, 52; salarymen (see salarymen). See also white-collar workers

Working women, 6, 19, 56n17, 165, 170–171; blue-collar women workers (See also Sachi Fujii), 5, 19, 54n3; breaking through employment boundaries, 96–97, 100; of the

Bubble generation, 81, 83–85, 99–100; clerical positions and clerical-track jobs (ippanshoku), 5–6, 85, 86–90, 170, 341; employment status (See working women); female corporate workers, 13, 19, 83, 101; gender discrimination and, 85, 167; issue of choice in employment, 100–101; macrostructural forces impacting, 100–101; marriage age, 164–165; marrying later, 167–168; quitting jobs for child rearing, 21n3. See also career women; white-collar workers

Workplace: changes in, 2, 30, 42; female-female

Disparity (jojo kakusa), 6, 102, 341; formal vs.

Informal rules, 100; work conditions, 5–8, 27;

Work culture, 135

Work stress, 36, 94, 96–97, 102, 173 world Health Organization (wHO), 137 world war ii, 122, 281, 282, 323

Worldwide recession in financial markets, 2. See also

Economic recession; “Lehman shock” wöss, Fleur, 329

Wu, yongmei, 11 Yamada, Masahiro, 16, 63, 66, 68, 73, 79n4, 167; The Age of Parasite Singles (Parasaito shinguru no jidai), 163

Yamagata Prefecture study of child-rearing, 228. See also child-rearing

Yasuda Mutsuhiko, 316–317

Yoneda cultural festival, 270, 278–279, 280, 282

yoneda Junior High, 277t., 278–279, 279, 280–281,

282, 283

yoshioka, Ms., teacher, 275–276

Young mothers: childcare needs as a structural issue, 228; “child-rearing neurosis” (ikuji noirōze), 226; insecurities and stresses of child rearing, 114, 225–229, 242, 243, 341; lack of experience with infants and children, 228, 240; studies of, 228–230. See also child-rearing; networks of young mothers; stay-at-home mothers

Young people: in irregular employment (“freeters”), 6, 213; performing part-time work (arubaito),

45, 339

Youth unemployment, 6

Yumiko (bubble-generation working woman), 100– 101, 102; on a lifetime clerical track, 86–91;

Wanting tea-house employment, 89, 90–91 COVER DESIGN: Julie Matsuo-Chun“Anyone who teaches courses on contemporary Japanese culture and society will welcome this collection, which draws upon the work of some of the most highly regarded anthropologists presently working on Japan. It offers a complex yet immensely readable, clearly organized, and jargon-free picture of the what, why, and how of Japan today. There are riches here to satisfy the palate of both the distracted undergraduate and the seasoned Japan specialist.”—CHRISTINE YANO, University of Hawai'i, Mânoa

“I have no doubt that Capturing Contemporary Japan will quickly be adopted by a wide variety of undergraduate and graduate courses on Japanese society. The book is remarkably cohesive for an edited volume and presents the best set of ethnographic portraits of contemporary Japan since Takie Sugiyama Lebra's Japanese Social Organization (1992).”—ROGER GOODMAN, University of Oxford

COVER ART: Oracle-telling on a frigid January night at the west exit of
Shinjuku Station, Tokyo. Photo courtesy of Julian R. N. Roberts
What are people's life experiences in present-day Japan? This timely volume addresses fundamental questions vital to understanding Japan in the first decade of the twenty-first century. Its chapters collectively reveal a questioning of middle-class ideals once considered the essence of Japaneseness. In the postwar model household a man was expected to obtain a job at a major firm that offered life-long employment; his counterpart, the “professional” housewife, managed the domestic sphere and the children, who were educated in a system that provided a path to mainstream success. In the past twenty years, however, Japanese society has seen a sharp increase in precarious forms of employment, higher divorce rates, and a widening gap between haves and have-nots.

Contributors draw on rich, nuanced fieldwork data collected during the 2000s to examine work, schooling, family and marital relations, child rearing, entertainment, lifestyle choices, community support, consumption and waste, material culture, well-being, aging, death and memorial rites, and sexuality. The voices in these pages vary widely: They include schoolchildren, teenagers, career women, unmarried women, young mothers, people with disabilities, small business owners, organic farmers, retirees, and the elderly.

SATSUKI KAWANO is associate professor of anthropology at the University of Guelph, (Canada). GLENDA S. ROBERTS is professor and director of international studies at Waseda University (Japan). SUSAN ORPETT LONG is professor of anthropology at John Carroll University (U.S.).

UNIVERSITY OF HAWAI'I PRESS

Honolulu, Hawai'i 96822-1888

crease in precarious forms of employment, higher divorce rates, and a widening gap between haves and have-nots.

Contributors draw on rich, nuanced fieldwork data collected during the 2000s to examine work, schooling, family and marital relations, child rearing, entertainment, lifestyle choices, community support, consumption and waste, material culture, well-being, aging, death and memorial rites, and sexuality. The voices in these pages vary widely: They include schoolchildren, teenagers, career women, unmarried women, young mothers, people with disabilities, small business owners, organic farmers, retirees, and the elderly.

SATSUKI KAWANO is associate professor of anthropology at the University of Guelph, (Canada). GLENDA S. ROBERTS is professor and director of international studies at Waseda University (Japan). SUSAN ORPETT LONG is professor of anthropology at John Carroll University (U.S.).

UNIVERSITY OF HAWAI'I PRESS

Honolulu, Hawai'i 96822-1888

 
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