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Bilingualism in Schools and Society: Language, Identity, and Policy


Facts and Myths about BilingualismMYTH #1: A BILINGUAL IS FULLY PROFICIENT IN TWO LANGUAGESMYTH #2: IMMIGRANTS ARE RELUCTANT TO LEARN ENGLISHMYTH #3: CHILDREN NEED EARLY EXPOSURE TO A SECOND LANGUAGE IF THEY ARE TO LEARN IT SUCCESSFULLYMYTH #4: IMMIGRANT PARENTS SHOULD SPEAK THE SOCIETAL LANGUAGE WITH THEIR CHILDREN AT HOME TO HELP THEM SUCCEED IN SCHOOLMYTH #5: HIGH DROPOUT RATES OF HISPANIC STUDENTS IN THE U.S. DEMONSTRATE THE FAILURE OF BILINGUAL EDUCATIONSUMMARYFURTHER READINGSTUDY QUESTIONS AND ACTIVITIESBilingualism in a Globalized WorldOPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES OF GLOBALIZATIONGLOBAL SPREAD OF ENGLISHGLOBAL FLOW #1: TRANSNATIONAL MIGRATION- PEOPLE IN SEARCH OF A BETTER LIFEEducational MigrationGLOBAL FLOW #2: POPULAR MUSIC- CULTURAL HYBRIDIZATIONGLOBAL FLOW #3: ADVERTISING-SELLING GOODS AND SERVICES IN MORE THAN ONE LANGUAGEGLOBAL FLOW #4: THE INTERNET— THE GREAT FLATTENING FORCECONCLUSIONFURTHER READINGSTUDY QUESTIONS AND ACTIVITIESThe Politics of BilingualismWHAT IS A LANGUAGE? WHAT IS A DIALECT?LANGUAGE DIVERSITY IN THE WORLDDIGLOSSIAWHAT GIVES RISE TO BILINGUAL SOCIETIES?LANGUAGE MAINTENANCE AND SHIFTINCIDENCE OF BI-/MULTILINGUALISM IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIESOfficially Bi-/Multilingual Countries with Few Actual BilingualsOfficially Monolingual Countries with Many Actual BilingualsHOW LANGUAGE POLICY AFFECTS SOCIETAL BILINGUALISM: THREE CASESLatviaMoroccoSingaporeSUMMARYFURTHER READINGONLINE AND VIDEO RESOURCESSTUDY QUESTIONS AND ACTIVITIESHeritage Language EducationWHAT IS A HERITAGE LANGUAGE?HERITAGE LANGUAGE EDUCATION AT THE K-12 LEVELForeign/Heritage Language Education in Public K-12 SchoolsHeritage Language Education in Community-Based ProgramsFOREIGN/HERITAGE LANGUAGE LEARNING AT POST-SECONDARY INSTITUTIONSPROMOTING HERITAGE LANGUAGES: WHAT NEEDS TO BE DONEFURTHER READINGSTUDY QUESTIONS AND ACTIVITIESBilingualism and IdentityLANGUAGE ATTITUDE AND ETHNIC IDENTITYETHNIC IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT: A MODELTHE ROLE OF HERITAGE LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY IN IDENTITY DEVELOPMENTESSENTIALIST VS. CONSTRUCTIVIST VIEWS ON LANGUAGE AND IDENTITY: AN EXAMPLEUNDERSTANDING THE SOCIAL CONTEXTS OF LANGUAGE LEARNINGEDUCATION FOR EMPOWERMENTSUMMARYFURTHER READINGSTUDY QUESTIONS AND ACTIVITIESSocial and Conversational Aspects of Code-SwitchingREVISITING DIGLOSSIACONVERSATIONAL CODE-SWITCHINGMyers-Scotton’s “Markedness Model”Auer’s Conversation Analytic FrameworkUSING CODE-SWITCHING TO WIELD POWERCODE-SWITCHING ON THE INTERNETCODE-SWITCHING IN POPULAR MUSICCODE-SWITCHING IN THE CLASSROOMSUMMARYFURTHER READINGSTUDY QUESTIONS AND ACTIVITIESEducating English LearnersTHE GROWING ENGLISH LEARNER POPULATIONLANGUAGE POLICY IN THE UNITED STATES: A HISTORICAL OVERVIEWThe Permissive Period: 1700s-1880sThe Restrictive Period: 1880s-1960sThe Opportunist Period: 1960s-1980sThe Dismissive Period: 1980s-PresentACADEMIC LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT OF ENGLISH LEARNERSHOW SHOULD ACADEMIC LANGUAGE BE TAUGHT?CONCLUSIONSFURTHER READINGONLINE RESOURCESSTUDY QUESTIONS AND ACTIVITIESEducational Models that Promote Additive BilingualismCANADIAN FRENCH IMMERSIONEUROPEAN SCHOOLSINDIGENOUS LANGUAGE IMMERSIONDEVELOPMENTAL (LATE-EXIT) BILINGUAL EDUCATIONTWO-WAY (DUAL) IMMERSIONSUMMARYFURTHER READINGONLINE AND VIDEO RESOURCESSTUDY QUESTIONS AND ACTIVITIESMultilingual FamiliesSIMULTANEOUS BILINGUAL ACQUISITIONSUCCESSIVE BILINGUAL ACQUISITIONCASE STUDIES OF THREE BILINGUAL FAMILIESThe Fantini Family (Fantini, 1985)The Caldas Family (Caldas, 2006)The Matthews Family (Yip & Matthews, 2007)BIRTH ORDER DIFFERENCES IN BILINGUAL DEVELOPMENTRESISTING LANGUAGE SHIFTSUMMARYFURTHER READINGONLINE RESOURCESSTUDY QUESTIONS AND ACTIVITIES
 
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