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Mixed types

The preceding sections presented numerous research projects reporting data on mixed types. These projects exemplify how particular volunteer activities bridge two or more of the aforementioned types. Other examples include pro bono legal service, wherein a lawyer works with both ideas and people. Volunteer consultants also work with these two, as do zoo and museum guides and volunteer teachers and instructors. Missionary work invariably centers on both ideas and people and may also involve things (e.g., building a school, setting up a hospital). Furthermore missionary work could extend across four types such as when its goals include working with local people to establish a safe water site, which requires cleaning up the surrounding environment. And membership in certain nonprofit groups brings with it volunteering in several types of activities, as in the Sea Cadets where youth in, for example, leadership, knot tying, and use of weapons (Raisborough 1999).

Bendle and Patterson (2008) studied career volunteers who served community interests through their work in local amateur and hobbyist artist groups in Australia. They explored the costs and rewards these participants experienced as they developed and coordinated resources, provided continuing calendars of activities, and organized events for the benefit of their members and the public. The authors learned that each artist group relies heavily on a small number of volunteer members who, in addition to active participation in their group’s creative activities, also undertake leadership duties and responsibilities to manage their group’s activities and events. These members were combining their creative amateur or hobbyist pursuits with a career volunteer role within their group.

Elspeth Frew (2013), herself an experienced stand-up comic, used an auto-ethnographic approach to examine her motivation and experiences as a volunteer fundraiser during the creation and management of six small scale charity arts events (all offering comedic fare) staged from 2007 to 2011 in Melbourne. Her conclusions from this study included the following: (1) Advising volunteer management that it should encourage individuals to volunteer and then pay attention to their needs and wants. In the arts sector this may involve providing privileged access to the performers the volunteers admire. (2) She also suggested that, for younger individuals, volunteering may provide the opportunity to establish contacts and networks in the industry and add valuable work experience to their resumes. (3) Volunteering in the arts can provide useful stage time for new performers since some arts volunteers are also performers.

Overall, the typology of volunteers and volunteering not only sets out eighteen basic types but also enables its users to explore for mixed types pursued as part of the same volunteer activity. Moreover, it enables these users to trace the mixed and single types of volunteering that people engage in during their careers in serious leisure.


i Amateurs and professionals are locked in and therefore defined, in part, by a system of relations linking them and their publics - the “professional- amateur-public (P-A-P) system” (discussed in more detail in Stebbins, 1979; i992:Chapter 3; 2007/2015:6-8). Yoder’s study (1997) of tournament bass fishing in the United States engendered an important modification of the original P-A-P model. He found, first, that fishers here are amateurs, not hobbyists, and second, that commodity producers serving both amateur and professional tournament fishers play a role significant enough to warrant changing the original triangular professional-amateur-public (P-A-P) system of relationships. It consists of a system of relationships linking commodity agents, professionals/commodity agents, and amateurs/publics (C-PC-AP).

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