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Biofilms and Implantable Medical Devices: Infection and Control

PrefaceOne Fundamentals and properties of biofilms Overview of biofilm-related problems in medical devicesI ntroductionDevelopment of microbial biofilms on biomaterials used in medicineInteraction of microbial strains with biomaterial surfaceMicrobial structures involved in the adherence to biomaterialsPolysaccharidesBio film structure and propertiesIncidence and etiology of biofilm-associated infections on medical devicesOrthopedic infectionsCatheter-associated infectionsInfections associated with cardiovascular implantsInfections associated with ophthalmic implantsVentilation-associated pneumoniaThe pathogenesis of infections associated with medical devicesStrategies to prevent infections associated with medical devicesConclusionReferencesProperties of biofilms developed on medical devicesI ntroductionBiofilm infections related to medical devicesGram-positive bacteriaGram-negative bacteriaFungal bio filmsProtozoa biofilmsArchaea biofilmDevice-associated biofilmsNoninvasive devicesBiofilms associated with invasive devicesTransient use medical devicesShort-term-used medical devicesLong-term useConclusionsReferencesAdhesion of bacteria to surfaces and biofilm formation on medical devicesIntroductionFinding the target: bacterial motility and events that lead to bacterial contact with and attachment to a surfaceBrownian motionFlagellar motilityNonflagellar motilityEnvironmental stimuli that influence bacterial movementChemotaxisQuorum sensingBis-(3-5)-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP)Coming and going versus staying put: adhesion to a surface, regulation of adhesion, and initiation of microcolony formationSticking to it: factors that mediate bacterial adherence to a surfaceProtein adhesinsAdhesive piliAmyloid fibersOther methods of sticking to it: nonproteinaceous adhesive factorsSo it begins: reversible and irreversible attachment to a surfaceContact-dependent signal transduction in promoting irreversible attachmentRegulation of adhesive fibersGrowing old together: processes that lead to biofilm maturationRaising the shields: the composition and function of the extracellular matrixComposition of the extracellular matrixProtecting the community: role of the ECM in biofilm maturationAll grown up: growth and maturation of the biofilm communityDivvying up the labor: subpopulation development during biofilm maturationTime to leave: biofilm dispersal and implications for the hostThe signal(s) to leave: cues lending to dissemination from the bio filmAdding fuel to the fire: biofilm dispersal drives secondary-site infectionThere is a stranger in my house: mixed-species biofilms in relation to medical devices and human healthConclusions and thoughts moving forwardReferencesAntimicrobial resistance of biofilms in medical devicesIntroductionBiofilms—formation, structure, and resistanceFormation and structureAntimicrobial resistanceInfections associated with medical devicesMedical devicesHealthcare-associated infectionsMost common contamination in medical devicesBiofilms in medical devices: resistanceDetection and diagnosisConsequences of bio film resistance: superbugsBio film preventionConclusionsReferencesTwo Biofilm-related infections in medical devicesBiofilms on dental implantsIntroductionOral implantology: fundamental principlesBiofilms on dental implantsGeneral aspectsThe characteristics of bio films in dental implantsPellicle formationAdhesion of microorganisms and maturation of implant dental plaqueMaterial-related parametersSurface propertiesImplant and abutment materialThe role of the implant/abutment connectionImpact of platform switchingProsthetic suprastructureRole of dental cement in biofilm formation on dental implantsConclusionsReferencesBiofilm on bone repair devicesI ntroductionInfection of bone repair devicesInfection and bone allograftInfluence of the synovial environment on infectionDetection and treatment of orthopedic infectionConclusionReferencesPrevention of biofilm formation by material modificationIntroductionMetals and alloysPolymersProsthetic tubular devicesDevelopment of new surfaces with antibiofilm propertiesInnovative wound dressingCeramicsComposite materialsDental materialsConclusions and perspectivesReferencesDetection of bacterial adherence and biofilm formation on medical surfacesIntroductionDiagnosis of device-associated biofilmsTraditional detection, visualization, and isolation of bio film-forming bacteria from medical devicesCulture methodsDirect staining and microscopy methodsImmunology-based methodsMolecular techniquesState-of-the-art methods for detection and visualization of bio films on medical devicesImproved bio film imagingEngineering-based approaches: development of intelligent implantsConcluding remarksReferencesAlternative strategies to reduce the incidence of severe infectionsIntroductionStrategies based on natural modulatorsEssential oilsQuorum-sensing inhibitorsStrategies based on synthetic structuresOrganic compoundsInorganic compoundsStrategies based on nanobiomaterialsConclusionsReferences

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