Infections associated with ophthalmic implants
Contact lenses are classified into two categories: soft contact lenses (made of silicone and hydrogel) and hard contact lenses (made of polymethylmethacrylate). P. aeruginosa and staphylococcal species represent a major risk of corneal infection in lense carriers. When microorganisms come in contact with lenses, they can cause ulcers, a condition known as microbial keratitis (Lazar, 2003). S. epidermidis is a pathogenic bacterium responsible for infections associated with surgical implantation of intraocular lenses, causing acute postoperative endophthalmitis (Okajima et al., 2006).
Ventilation-associated pneumonia (VAP) is one of the most frequent nosocomial infections in the intensive care units, with an incidence of 9-70%, starting after tracheal intubation and artificial lung ventilation of the patient, for a period of at least 48 h. VAP is associated with increased morbidity, hospitalization, and high-cost extension therapy (Guggenbichler et al., 2011). Mortality caused by VAP is 27-50%, being higher in the ICU for surgical profile (http://old.ms.md/_files/14435-PCS_VAP_Pneumonia%25201.10.2013.pdf.). About 8-28% of patients with mechanical ventilation for more than 48 h will develop VAP. This phenomenon is possible because of respiratory device colonization by bacteria from the oral or intestinal Gram-negative microbiota (Guggenbichler et al., 2011). MRSA, P. aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp., Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella sp., and Ser- ratia sp. are microorganisms that occur in VAP with late onset (Mayhall, 2001; http:// old.ms.md/_files/14435-PCS_VAP_Pneumonia%25201.10.2013.pdf). VAP prevalence is high among patients with respiratory assistance devices (endotracheal tubes, tracheostomy) (Guggenbichler et al., 2011).