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Concluding remarks

Diagnosis of biofilm formation on medical devices is mainly based on the isolation and identification of the contaminant bacteria and their subsequent characterization for biofilm formation using in vitro assays. This approach is not efficient for the timely treatment of patients and often requires the removal of the device. As of 2016, efforts are focused on optimizing in vivo visualization of biofilms formed on the surface of medical devices. Although informative, these techniques require further confirmation of the identity and viability of the contaminant organisms and therefore are not practical for rapid patient intervention with antimicrobial therapy. State-of-the-art methodologies are currently under development to engineer smart catheters using biosensors that allow the detection of biofilm formation in its early stages. Albeit promising, this futuristic approach still needs optimization for clinical application.

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