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Particle Technology
THE DEFINITION OF MECHANICAL PROCESS TECHNOLOGY
THE PURPOSE OF MECHANICAL PROCESS TECHNOLOGY
MAIN TOPICS AND PROCESSES
The characteristics of systems and their changes of state
DISPERSE SYSTEMS
REPRESENTING THE CHARACTERISTICS OF PARTICLE ASSEMBLIES
Measures of dispersity: fineness parameters
(a) Geometrical measures of dispersity
(b) Settling velocity
(c) Optical measures of dispersity
(d) Density
Equivalent diameter
Particle shape
General representation of particle assemblies (a) Definition of distribution functions for various measures of populations
(b) Moments
(c) Conversion of distributions
(d) Specific statistical values of the measure of dispersity
(e) The spread of a distribution: measures of scatter
(f) Specific surface
The Gaussian or normal distribution
Particle distributions and distribution functions approximating to them
(a) Examples of particle distributions
(b) The log-normal distribution
(c) The Gaudin-Schuhmann or power-law distribution function
(d) The RRSB distribution
Similar distributions
THE SEPARATION OF DISPERSE SYSTEMS
Material balances
Grade efficiency and grade efficiency curve, cut size and sharpness of cut
MIXING OF DISPERSE SYSTEMS
The state of a mixture and the degree of mixingt
The variance of the concentration distribution during the mixing process
Evaluation of mixing experiments
(a) Mixture of known composition
(b) Mixtures of unknown composition
(c) The distribution of the composition of the samples from a uniform random mixture
(d) Sample size
PACKING OF GRANULAR SOLIDS
The states of packing systems
The particle and void system
Packing structure
Liquid filling of voids
Capillary pressure and porosimetry
Forces transmitted in the packing
Fundamental physical processes and particle metrology
THE MOTION OF PARTICLES IN A FLOWING MEDIUM
The forces on a single particle
(a) Synopsis
(b) The drag force on a sphere in a fluid moving with a constant and uniform velocity of approach
(c) The influence of turbulence in the bulk of the fluid and of surface roughness
(d) The influence of compressibility and the mean free path of the fluid
(e) The influence of acceleration and particle rotation
(f) The influence of particle shape
(g) Wall effects
The motion of a single particle
(a) The equations of motion
(b) Uniform motion of a particle
(c) Accelerated particle movement
The dynamic interaction of particles in a fluid
(a) The interaction between individual particles
(b) Interactions between particles settling in suspensions
FLOW THROUGH PACKINGS
Dimensional analysis
Empirical perfusion laws
THE MECHANICS OF THE FLUIDIZED BED
Phenomenology
Perfusion law
The stability of the fluidized bed
THE CONTINUUM MECHANICS OF PACKINGS: POWDER MECHANICS
Coefficient of pressure at rest
State of stress
Yield criteria for packings
(a) The Coulomb yield criterion used in soil mechanics
(b) Yield behaviour of bulk solids
The design of bunkers using Jenike’s method
DEFORMATION AND FRACTURE OF SOLIDS
Fracture criteria
Deformation and fracture of particles under stress
Comminutive properties of materials
ADHESION
Liquid bridges
van der Waals forces (dispersion forces)
Electrostatic forces
Solid bridges
Comparison of the first three adhesive mechanisms and the influence of the surface roughness
PARTICLE METROLOGY
Sampling and sample splitting
Dispersion
Counting methods
(a) Indirect (pictorial) counting methods
(b) Direct counting methods
Sedimentation methods
Separation processes
(a) Sifting
(b) Air classification
Techniques for measuring surface area
(a) Photometric surface measurement
(b) Permeability methods
(c) Sorption methods
Pore size measurement
(a) Pore size distribution using sorption methods
(b) The determination of pore size by capillary pressure
Processes
SEPARATION PROCESSES
Separations in streams of fluids
(a) Cross-current separation processes
(b) Counter-current separation processes (equilibrium separation)
(c) Combined cross-current-counter-current separation processes
(i) The cyclone
(ii) Recirculating air classifier (with distributing plate)
(iii) Disc centrifuge and plate separator
(d) Inertial deflecting separation
(e) Separation in pulsating flow
Sink-and-float sorting
Electrical and magnetic separation processes
(a) Electrical separation processes
(b) Magnetic separation processes
Separation processes using wall friction
Sifting
Cake filtration
MIXING PROCESSES
Mixing of gases
Mixing of a gas into a liquid (aeration)
Dispersing of a liquid into a gas (nebulization)
Mixing of liquids
Dispersing of solids in gases
Dispersing of solids in liquids
Mixing of solids
AGGLOMERATING AND COAGULATING PROCESSES
Cumulative granulation
Agglomeration by compaction
Sintering
Coagulation
COMMINUTION PROCESSES
Crushers
Roller mills
Mills with loose milling implements
Impact-grinding machines
Cutter mills
Wet milling
CONVEYING, STORING AND FEEDING OF BULK SOLIDS
Conveying
Storing and feeding
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