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Integration Processes and Policies in Europe





The EU Concept of Integration: From a Two-Way to a ThreeWay ProcessStructure of the BookReferencesThe Concept of Integration as an Analytical Tool and as a Policy ConceptIntroductionThe Study of Integration ProcessesA Definition of the ConceptThree DimensionsTwo PartiesThree Levels and IndicatorsTime and GenerationsThe Study of Integration PoliciesA Definition of the ConceptFramesPolicy MeasuresGovernancePolitics and TimeComparison as a ToolIntegration ProcessesIntegration PoliciesConclusionReferencesMigration and Immigrants in Europe: A Historical and Demographic PerspectiveIntroductionThree Periods of Migration in EuropeFrom the 1950s to 1974: Guest Worker Schemes and DecolonizationFrom 1974 to the End of the 1980s: The Oil Crisis and Migration ControlFrom the 1990s to 2012: Recent Trends in Migration towards and Within EuropeMigration Towards and from EuropeMobility of EU CitizensNumbers and DestinationsDemographic Characteristics of Intra-EU MoversConclusionsReferencesNational Immigration and Integration Policies in Europe Since 1973IntroductionImmigration Experiences and National Policy ResponsesPostcolonial, Labour, and Asylum Migrants in North-Western EuropeFrom Emigration to Immigration in the Southern European CountriesCentral and Eastern EuropeTowards a European Approach to Asylum Seekers, Refugees, and Labour MigrantsIntegration Regimes: Who Is to Integrate into What and by Which MeansIntegration Policies in North-Western EuropeIntegration Policies in Southern European CountriesIntegration Policies in Central and Eastern EuropeConclusionReferencesWho Is an Immigrant and Who Requires Integration? Categorizing in European PoliciesIntroductionThe Study of Categories and Its Relevance for PolicymakingExplicit Target Groups and Implicit Hierarchies in the Policy ChainRoute 1: EU CitizensRoute 2: Third-Country NationalsRoute 2a: Legal Immigrants and Target of Integration PolicyRoute 2b: Legal Immigrants and Target of Return PolicyConclusionReferencesThe Multilevel Governance of Migration and IntegrationIntroductionA Framework for the Study of MultilevelnessImmigration PoliciesEuropeanizationPatterns of Multilevel Relations in Immigration PoliciesIntegration PoliciesThe Local Turn in Migrant Integration PoliciesEuropean Involvement and Nascent Multilevel GovernanceConclusionReferencesTransnationalism as a Research Paradigm and Its Relevance for IntegrationIntroductionNew Ways of Thinking About Integration: The Transnationalism ParadigmEmpirical Findings: Transnationalism and Integration in EuropeEconomic Transnational ActivitiesPolitical Transnational ActivitiesSociocultural Transnational ActivitiesChallenges for Future Policy-Oriented ResearchReferencesTranslocal Activities of Local Governments and Migrant OrganizationsIntroductionLocal Governments as Actors in Transnational ExchangeCharacterizing the Transnational Activities of Local GovernmentsMotives and Frames of the Transnational / Translocal Activities of Local GovernmentsImpacts of Local Governments' Transnational ActivitiesLinking the Local Level “Here” and “There”: Migrant OrganizationsCharacterizing the Transnational Activities of Migrant OrganizationsMotives and Frames of Translocal Activities of Migrant OrganizationsTransnational Activities by Migrant Organizations: What Difference Do They Make?ConclusionReferencesSending Country PoliciesIntroductionMapping the Outreach Policies of Countries of OriginExplaining Sending Country Policies: Transnational Interests, National Politics, and the International Diffusion of IdeasTransnational Relations as an Outcome of the Balance of Interests and Power between Sending Countries and DiasporasThe Politics of the State and NationGlobal Norms and the International Diffusion of IdeasPerceptions of Sending Country Policies in Countries of ResidenceConcluding RemarksReferencesMigration and Development Framework and Its Links to IntegrationIntroductionTheoretical Perspectives on the M&D NexusMigration Studies and Development StudiesUnpacking the M&D NexusVirtuous and Vicious Circles: Theoretical UnderpinningsOptimism, Pessimism, and the Neoliberal AgendaTowards a Broader Framing of Migration and DevelopmentHow Does the M&D Frame Relate to the Integration Process, and Vice Versa?ConclusionReferencesIntroductionThe Concept of Integration in PoliciesNational Integration PoliciesLocal Integration PoliciesEU Integration PoliciesIntegration from the Perspective of Origin CountriesMigrants' Transnational ActivitiesMigrant Organizations, NGOs, and Local GovernmentsGovernments of Origin CountriesThe M&D NexusFrom a Two-Way to a Three-Way Process Conception of IntegrationReferences
 
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