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The handbook of biomarkers


DefinitionsHistorical Aspects of BiomarkersClassification of BiomarkersBiomarker as a Response to Therapeutic InterventionPharmacokin etic/Pharmacodynamics BiomarkersPredictive BiomarkersValid BiomarkersTypes of BiomarkersGenes as BiomarkersSilent Gene MutationsEpigenetic BiomarkersProteins as BiomarkersProteomicsDNA BiomarkersMitochondrial DNAMitochondrial MutationsRNA BiomarkersTranscriptomicsMicroRNAsMetabolomicsGlycomicsSingle Nucleotide PolymorphismsHaplotypingCell Biomarkers of DiseaseStem Cell BiomarkersCancer Stem Cell BiomarkersEndoglin as a Functional Biomarker of Stem CellsProtein Expression Profile as Biomarker of Stem CellsSTEMPRO® EZChek™ for Analysis of Biomarkers of hESCsSSEA-4 as Biomarker of MSCsGaseous Mediators as Biomarkers of DiseaseAutoantibodies as Biomarkers of Autoimmune DiseasesComparison of Various Types of BiomarkersBiomarkers and Systems BiologySystems Biology Approach to Biomarker IdentificationRelation of Biomarkers to Other Technologies and HealthcareBiomarkers and Translational MedicineRole of Biomarkers in Monitoring of DiseasesLimitations of use of Biomarkers in HealthcareReferencesTechnologies for Discovery of BiomarkersIntroductionThe Ideal BiomarkerGenomic TechnologiesGene ExpressionWhole Genome Expression ArrayGene Expression Profiling on Whole Blood SamplesProfiling Gene Expression Patterns of White Blood CellsTissue Microarrays for Study of BiomarkersTechnologies for Detection of miRNAs as BiomarkersMicroarrays for Analysis of miRNA Gene ExpressionMicroarrays vs Quantitative PCR for Measuring miRNAsPoint-of-Care Detection of Circulating miRNAs as BiomarkersEpigenomic TechnologiesDiscovery of Methylation BiomarkersProteomic TechnologiesDGEProteoCarta® Integrated Proteomics Discovery PlatformIsotope-Coded Affinity TagsLiquid Chromatography-MS/MSLucid Proteomics SystemMagnetics Beads for Protein Biomarker DiscoveryMASStermind™Combined Analysis of Protein and Nucleic-Acid BiomarkersMass SpectrometryD PAGE and Mass SpectrometryImaging Mass SpectrometryMALDI Mass Spectrometry for Biomarker DiscoveryQuantitative Tandem MSSingle-Molecule Mass Spectrometry Using a NanoporeRequirements for MS-Based Proteomic Biomarker DevelopmentNucleic Acid Programmable Protein ArrayProtein TomographyProtein Biochips/Microarrays and BiomarkersDetection of Biomarkers Using Peptide Array TechnologyProtoArray®Protein NanobiochipGene Expression Microarray Data as a Source of Protein BiomarkersQuantification of Protein BiomarkersMultiple Reaction Monitoring AssaysReal-Time PCR for Quantification of Protein BiomarkersCyTOF for Quantification of BiomarkersSearch for Biomarkers in Body FluidsChallenges and Strategies for Discovery of Protein Biomarkers in PlasmaTechnologies for Removal of Highly Abundant Proteins in BloodD Structure of CD38 as a BiomarkerBD™ Free Flow Electrophoresis SystemIsotope Tags for Relative and Absolute QuantificationPlasma Protein Microparticles as BiomarkersProteome PartitioningStable Isotope Tagging MethodsTechnology to Measure Both the Identity and Size of the BiomarkerSelected Reaction Monitoring MSTargeted MS for Verification of BiomarkersBiomarkers in the Urinary ProteomePeptides as Biomarkers of DiseaseAnalysis of Peptides in Bodily FluidsAntibody Biomarker Discovery via Evolution of PeptidesSerum Peptidome PatternsSISCAPA Method for Quantitating Proteins and Peptides in PlasmaComparison of Proteomic Profiling Technologies for Discovery of BiomarkersVerification for Interlaboratory Reproducibility of Protein BiomarkersSignificance of Similar Protein Biomarkers in Different TissuesGlycomic TechnologiesCellular Glycomics for Discovery of Cellular BiomarkersMetabolomic TechnologiesGenome-Wide Association Studies for Identification of Metabolic BiomarkersGenetic Influences on Human Blood MetabolitesLipid ProfilingMass Spectrometry for Discovery of Metabolic Biomarkers in PlasmaRole of Metabolomics in Biomarker Identification and Pattern RecognitionUrinary Profiling by Capillary ElectrophoresisValidation of Biomarkers in Large-Scale Human Metabolomics StudiesLipidomicsDisease Biomarkers in BreathPortable Breath Test for Volatile Organic CompoundsDetection of Breath Biomarkers by Sensation TechnologyDetection of Breath Biomarkers by NanosensorsDetection of Breath Biomarkers Optical Frequency Comb SpectroscopyDetection of Breath Biomarkers by Infrared Absorption SpectroscopyDetection of Biomarkers by Electronic NoseFluorescent Indicators for BiomarkersMolecular Imaging TechnologiesComputer TomographyMagnetic Resonance ImagingPositron Emission TomographyAdvantages of Imaging BiomarkersMonitoring In Vivo Gene Expression by Molecular ImagingChallenges and Future of Molecular ImagingBasic Research in Molecular ImagingImaging Intracellular NADH as a Biomarker of DiseaseDevices for Molecular ImagingImaging Biomarkers in Clinical TrialsMolecular Imaging in Clinical PracticeNuclear Magnetic ResonanceChemical Derivatization to Enhance Biomarker Detection by NMRFluxomics by Using NMRNanobiotechnologyDip Pen NanolithographyNanomaterials for BiolabelingQuantum dot Molecular LabelsBioconjugated QDs for Multiplexed Profiling of BiomarkersMagnetic Nanotags for Multipley Detection of BiomarkersNanoparticles for Molecular ImagingNanoparticles for Discovering BiomarkersNanoproteomics and BiomarkersHigh-Field Asymmetric Waveform ion Mobility Mass SpectrometryNanosensors for Measuring Biomarkers in BloodNanobiochip Sensor Technique for Analysis of Oral Cancer BiomarkersFuture Prospects of Application of Nanobiotechnology for BiomarkersBioinformaticsBiomarker Workflow GuideAnalysis of Microarray Data for Selecting Useful BiomarkersRole of Bioinformatics in Discovery of Protein BiomarkersRole of Bioinformatics in Detection of Cancer BiomarkersBiomarker DatabasesGene Networks as BiomarkersRole of Bioinformatics in Integrating Various Data and Biomarker DiscoveryEvaluation of Biomarker StudiesReferencesBiomarkers and Molecular DiagnosticsMolecular Diagnostic TechnologiesPolymerase Chain ReactionAmplificationTarget SelectionDetection of Amplified DNALimitations of PCRReal-Time PCR SystemsLimitations of Real-Time PCRFuture Applications of Real-Time qPCRReal-Time qPCR for Quantification of Circulating mtDNACombined PCR-ELISANon-PCR MethodsLinked Linear AmplificationTranscription Mediated AmplificationRapid Analysis of Gene ExpressionWAVE Nucleic Acid Fragment Analysis SystemDNA Probes with Conjugated Minor Groove BinderRolling Circle Amplification TechnologyGene-Based Diagnostics through RCATRCAT-ImmunodiagnosticsRCAT-BiochipsRCAT-PharmacogenomicsCircle-to-Circle AmplificationBiochips and MicroarraysApplications of Biochips/MicroarraysRole of Biochip/Microarrays in Discovery of BiomarkersBiomarkers and High Throughput Molecular ScreeningDetection and Expression Profiling of miRNAReal-Time PCR for Expression Profiling of miRNAsUse of LNA to Explore miRNAMicroarrays for Analysis of miRNA Gene ExpressionReferencesBiomarkers for Drug Discovery and DevelopmentBiomarker Technologies for Drug DiscoveryProteomics-Based Biomarkers for Drug DiscoveryChemoproteomicsActivity-Based Chemical ProteomicsTranscriptomics for Drug DiscoveryMetabolomics for Drug DiscoveryBiomarkers and Drug Safety Biomarkers of Adverse Drug ReactionsApplications of Biomarkers in Drug Safety StudiesGenomic Technologies for Toxicology BiomarkersProteomic Technologies for Toxicology BiomarkersMetabonomic Technologies for Toxicology BiomarkersIntegration of Genomic and Metabonomic Data to Develop Toxicity BiomarkersToxicology Studies Based on BiomarkersBiomarkers of HepatotoxicityBiomarkers of NephrotoxicityCardiotoxicityNeurotoxicityApplications of Biomarkers for Drug DevelopmentApplication of Metabonomics/Metabolomics for Drug DevelopmentRole of Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Biomarkers in Drug DevelopmentMolecular Imaging as a Biomarker in Drug DevelopmentMolecular Imaging in Preclinical StudiesMolecular Imaging in Clinical TrialsProspects of Molecular Imaging in Drug Discovery and DevelopmentBiomarkers in Clinical TrialsNIH Recommendations on the Use of Biomarkers in Clinical TrialsAdvantages of Biomarkers for Drug DevelopmentLimitations and Problems with Use of Biomarkers in Clinical TrialsApplication of Biomarkers by the Pharmaceutical CompaniesRole of Biomarkers in Vaccine DevelopmentRole of Biomarkers in Relation to Stage of Drug Discovery and DevelopmentRole of Biomarkers for Drug Development in Cardiovascular DisordersRole of Biomarkers for Drug Development in Neurological DisordersSignificance of Biomarkers in Drug DevelopmentPharmacogenomic Biomarker Information in Drug LabelsOrganizations and Resources for Biomarker-Based Drug DevelopmentBiomarker AllianceBiomarkers ConsortiumMolecular Libraries and Imaging Roadmap of NIHRare Diseases Clinical Research ConsortiaFuture of Biomarker-Based Drug DevelopmentReferencesRole of Biomarkers in HealthcareBiomarkers of InflammationESR and CRP as Biomarkers of InflammationMetabolic Biomarkers of InflammationYKL-40 as a Biomarker Inflammation and Predictor of MortalityBiomarkers of Allergic DisordersBiomarkers of Oxidative Stress,4-dihydroxynonane-mercapturic AcidOxidized PhospholipidsOxidative DNA DamageProteins as Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in DiseasesTesting for Oxidative StressBiomarkers of HypoxiaPathophysiology of HypoxiaHypoxia Inducible Factor as Biomarker of Hypoxia and Response to OxygenationIdentification of Hypoxia Biomarkers from Exhaled BreathMetabolic Biomarkers of HypoxiaBiomarkers of Liver DiseaseBreath Biomarkers of Liver DiseaseBiomarkers of Liver InjuryFibrosis and Cirrhosis of LiverFibroMaxHepatic EncephalopathymiRNA Biomarkers of Liver DiseaseViral Hepatitis B and CBiomarkers of Hepatitis CBiomarkers of Hepatitis BBiomarkers of PancreatitisBiomarkers of Renal DiseaseBiomarkers of Lupus NephritisBiomarkers of Diabetic NephropathyCystatin C as Biomarker of Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR)Estimated GFR and Albuminuria as Biomarkers of Chronic Kidney DiseaseProteomic Biomarkers of Acute Kidney InjuryTroponin-T as a Biomarker for Predicting End-Stage Renal DiseaseBiomarkers in PediatricsPediatric Critical CareBiomarkers of Acute Kidney Injury in ChildrenBiomarkers of Miscellaneous Disorders Biomarkers of Carbon Monoxide PoisoningBiomarkers of Castleman DiseaseBiomarkers of Erectile DysfunctionBiomarkers of FeverBiomarkers of Heat StrokeBiomarkers of HyponatremiaBiomarkers of Inflammatory Bowel DiseaseBiomarkers of Radiation InjuryBiomarkers for Prediction of All-Cause MortalityBiomarkers Common to Multiple DiseasesNasal Nitric Oxide as a Biomarker of Response to Rhinosinusitis TherapyBiomarkers of Gene-Environmental Interactions in Human DiseaseApplication of Biomarkers in Animal HealthReferencesBiomarkers in Metabolic DisordersBiomarkers of Acute Intermittent PorphyriaLiver X ReceptorsBiomarkers of Diabetes Mellitusв-Cell Function as Biomarker of DiabetesBiomarkers of HyperglycemiaBiomarkers of Diabetes-Associated Oxidative StressBiomarkers of Inflammation Associated with DiabetesBiomarkers of Renal Complications in Diabetes Mellitus Type 2Biomarkers of DiabesityBiomarkers of PrediabetesBiomarkers of Insulin ResistanceGlycosylated Hemoglobin in Diabetes MellitusGlycated Albumin as a Biomarker of Diabetes MellitusLow C-Peptide as a Biomarker of Complications of Diabetes Type 1Personalized Management of Diabetes Mellitus Based on BiomarkersBiomarkers of Metabolic SyndromeAdiponectinCystatin CHuman Plasma LipidomeNeurotensin as Biomarker of ObesityReferencesBiomarkers in Immune DisordersBiomarkers Relevant to Organ TransplantationBiomarkers of Graft Versus Host DiseaseBiomarkers of Renal Allograft FailureBiomarkers of Renal Transplant ToleranceBiomarkers of Lung Transplant RejectionBiomarkers of GVHD Following Transplantation of Hematopoietic CellsPlasma Biomarkers of Response to Therapy of GVHDSystemic Lupus ErythematosusAdiponectin as Biomarker of SLECurrent Management and Need for Biomarkers of SLERole of Collaborative Efforts and Databases of SLE BiomarkersC4d-Bearing ReticulocytesCB-CAPSEpigenetic Biomarkers of SLEGenetic Loci of SLEHMGB1Biomarkers of Systemic SclerosisReferencesBiomarkers of Musculoskeletal DisordersMuscle DisordersBiomarkers of Muscle Fatigue During ExerciseBiomarkers of Mitochondrial Content in Skeletal MuscleIdiopathic Inflammatory MyopathiesRheumatoid ArthritisAssays for Biomarkers of RABiomarkers for Personalizing Therapy of Rheumatoid ArthritisCirculating Cytokines in RAEpigenetic Biomarkers of Rheumatoid ArthritismiRNA Biomarkers in RASerum CRP in RABiomarkers of SpondylarthritisBiomarkers of Axial SpondyloarthritisBiomarkers of Psoriatic ArthritisOsteoarthritisMolecular Pathophysiology of OABiomarkers of OsteoarthritisAssays for Biomarkers of OABiomarkers of OAConcluding Remarks and Future Prospects of Biomarkers of OABiomarkers of OsteoporosisAssays for Detection of Biomarkers of OsteoporosisBone Imaging with Quantitative CT and MRICirculating miRNAs as Biomarkers of OsteoporosisDual X-ray AbsorptiometryUtility of Biomarkers of OsteoporosisBiomarkers of Osteonecrosis Osteonecrosis in Gaucher’s DiseaseReferencesBiomarkers of Infectious DiseasesSepsisApplication of Proteomics for Discovering Biomarkers of InfectionsBiomarkers of SepsisCirculating CPS-1 as Biomarkers of Organ Damage in SepsisCoQ10 Level Reduction in Septic ShockMultibiomarker-based Outcome Risk Stratification of Septic ShockNitric Oxide as a Biomarker of SepsisSuPAR as a Biomarker of SepsisChemokines as Biomarkers of InfectionEndotoxin as Biomarker of InfectionProcalcitonin as a Guide to Antibiotic Therapy in InfectionsSoluble Urokinase Plasminogen Activator ReceptorSystemic Inflammatory Response SyndromeTuberculosisConventional Diagnosis of TuberculosisMolecular Diagnostics for TuberculosisBiomarkers for TuberculosisBiomarkers of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in the BreathBiomarkers of Viral InfectionsViral HepatitisBiomarkers of SARSBiomarkers of HIVBiomarkers in Parasitic InfectionsRole of Biomarkers in MalariaIdentification of Biomarkers in Schistosomiasis InfectionsReferencesBiomarkers of Genetic DisordersBiomarkers of Down’s SyndromeBiomarkers of Muscular DystrophyBiomarkers of PhenylketonuriaGenetic Biomarkers of PsoriasisBiomarkers of Lysosomal Storage Disorders Biomarkers of Niemann-Pick DiseaseBile Acids as Biomarkers for the Early Diagnosis of NPDCholesterol Oxidation Products as Biomarkers of NPDBiomarkers of MucopolysaccharidosesProteomic Technologies for Biomarkers of MPSGlycan-based Biomarkers for MPSBiomarkers of LSDPrenatal Diagnosis of LSDBiomarkers of Fabry’s DiseaseReferencesBiomarkers of AgingBiomarkers of Biological AgeGene Variants as Determinants of Biological AgeGene Expression Profiles for Calculating Transcriptomic AgeBiomarkers of Healthy AgingBiomarkers of Longevity Healthy Aging IndexEffect of Calorie Restriction on Biomarkers of LongevityBiomarkers as Predictors of Mortality with AgingGenetic Biomarkers of AgingGenetic Signatures of LongevityLow Serum Thyroid Hormone Level as Biomarker of LongevityMetabolomic Biomarkers of AgingMitochondrial Mutations as Biomarkers of AgingProtein Biomarkers of AgingCarbamylated Proteins as Biomarkers of AgingProteomic Biomarkers of Muscle AgingRole of Humanin in Age-Related DiseasesRole of Bioinformatics in Search for Biomarkers of AgingAging Biomarkers in a Genetically Homogeneous PopulationTelomere Attrition as Aging BiomarkerReferencesNutritional BiomarkersBiomarkers of Nutrition for Development ProjectBiomarkers in Nutritional EpidemiologyBiomarkers of Nutritional StatusFerritin as Biomarker of Nutritional StatusFolate Biomarkers Related to Nutritional Health StatusIodine as Biomarker of Nutritional StatusZinc as a Biomarker of Nutritional StatusBiomarkers of Branched Chain Amino Acid StatusBiomarkers of Caloric RestrictionBiomarkers of MalnutritionMaternal Nutrition During Early Pregnancy Causes Epigenetic ChangesProteomic Biomarkers and NutritionVitamin Deficiency as Biomarker of DiseaseVitamin A BiomarkersVitamin B12 DeficiencyVitamin D Deficiency as a Biomarker of DiseaseRole of Biomarkers in the Development of Personalized NutritionReferencesBiomarkers of CancerThe Ideal Biomarker for CancerBiomarkers and Hallmarks of CancerSingle Vs Multiple Biomarkers of CancerTypes of Cancer BiomarkersmiRNAs as Biomarkers in CancerDiagnostic Value of miRNA in CancerBiomarkers of Epigenetic Gene Silencing in Cancer-Hydroxymethylcytosine as a Biomarker of CancerCarcinoembryonic AntigenCirculating Cancer BiomarkersCirculating Tumor Cells as Cancer BiomarkersCirculating Nucleic Acids as Potential Biomarkers of CancerCirculating Exosomes and Microvesicles as Biomarkers of CancerCirculating miRNAs for Cancer DetectionDNA Repair BiomarkersHER3 as Biomarker of CancerImmunologic and Inflammation Biomarkers of CancerMetastatic Cancer BiomarkersMolecular Diagnostic Techniques for CancerTechnologies for Detection of Cancer BiomarkersGenomic Technologies for Cancer BiomarkersBiomarkers of PTEN Tumor Suppressor Gene StatusCold-PCRddPCR for Detection of Cancer Biomarkers in Cell Free Plasma DNADigital Karyotyping for Cancer BiomarkersGenome Analysis at the Molecular LevelKRAS as a Biomarker of CancerLigAmp for Detection of Gene Mutations in CancerMitochondrial DNA as a Cancer BiomarkerNext Generation Squencing for Detection of Cancer BiomarkersTelomerase as a Biomarker of CancerTissue Microarrays for Study of Cancer BiomarkersMolecular Fingerprinting of CancerProteomic Technologies for Detecting Biomarkers of CancerAntibody-Based Detection of Protein BiomarkersAptamer-Based Molecular Probes for Cancer Biomarker DiscoveryBiomarkers of Protein-Drug Interactions in CancerCancer Immunomics to Identify Autoantibody SignaturesDesorption Electrospray Ionization for Detection of Cancer BiomarkersDetection of Circulating Nucleosomes in Serum of Cancer PatientsDetection of Tumor Biomarkers with ProteinChip TechnologyGlycoprotein Biomarkers of CancerHER-2/neu Oncoprotein as Biomarkers for CancerHumoral ProteomicsLaser Capture MicrodissectionMembrane-Type Serine Protease-1Proteomic Analysis of Cancer Cell MitochondriaProteomic Technologies for Detection of Autoimmune BiomarkersSELDI-TOF MSSerum Proteome Analysis for Early Detection of CancerSynthetic Biomarker-Based POC Diagnostic for CancerTriple-Quadrupole MS for Detection of Mutant ProteinsTargeted MS for Validation of Cancer Biomarkers in PlasmaTissue Proteomics for Discovery of Cancer BiomarkersVeraTag System for Cancer BiomarkersMetabolomic Biomarkers of CancerMagnetic Resonance for Detecting Metabolomics Biomarkers of CancerCholine Phospholipid Biomarkers of CancerHypoxia-Inducible Factor-1Detection of Drug Resistance in Cancer by Metabolic ProfilingPlasma Free Amino Acids Profiling in CancerUrinary Metabolomic Biomarkers of CancerEpitomics for the Early Detection of CancerEpigenetic Biomarkers of CancerDetection of Biomarkers of DNA MethylationEpigenomics Marker Machine for DNA Methylation BiomarkersHistone DeacetylaseMDScan™ Microarray TechnologyMucins as Epigenetic Biomarkers in Epithelial CancersPCR with Bisulfite for Detecting DNA Methylation Biomarkers in CancerDetection of Methylated DNA in Serum and UrineIntegrated Platform for Genetic and Epigenetic AnalysisNanobiotechnology for Early Detection of Cancer to Improve TreatmentAptasensor for Electrochemical Detection of ExosomesNanowire Biosensors for Detection of Cancer BiomarkersNP-Peptide Complexes for Detection of Cancer Biomarkers in UrineUltrasound Radiation to Enhance Release of a Tumor BiomarkerIn Vivo Imaging of Cancer BiomarkersComputer TomographyOptical Systems for In Vivo Molecular Imaging of CancerPositron Emission TomographyImaging of Tumor Oxygenation and Microvascular Permeability by MRIXenon-enhanced MRIKallikrein Gene Family and Cancer BiomarkersDetection of CTCs as Biomarkers of CancerApplications of Cancer BiomarkersUse of Biomarkers for Cancer ClassificationCancer Classification Using MicroarraysProteomic Classification of CancerUse of Biomarkers for Early Detection of CancerApplications of Biomarkers for Cancer DiagnosisMethylated DNA Sequences as Cancer BiomarkersMicroRNA Expression Profiling for Diagnosis of Human CancersMUC4 as a Diagnostic Biomarker in CancerApplications of Biomarkers for Cancer Diagnosis and TherapyARTS as a Biomarker as Well as a Basis of Anticancer DrugsAsparagine Synthetase as Biomarker for Therapy with L-AsparaginasePeptide-Based Agents for Targeting Cancer BiomarkersPI3K Mutations as a Biomarker for use as a Companion DiagnosticBiomarkers for Assessing Efficacy of Cancer TherapyERCC1-XPF Expression as a Biomarker of Response to ChemotherapyP53 Expression Level as Biomarker of Efficacy of Cancer Gene TherapyBiomarkers of Angiogenesis for Developing Antiangiogenic TherapyBiomarkers of Response to Antiangiogenic AgentsCirculating Endothelial Cells as Targets for Antiangiogenic DrugsImaging Biomarkers for Evaluation of Antiangiogenic AgentsTumor Endothelial BiomarkersVEGF Signaling Inhibitors as BiomarkersBiomarkers of Prognosis in Cancer TreatmentBiomarkers for Monitoring Cancer TherapyBiomarkers of Drug Resistance in CancerA Systems Approach to Biomarkers of Innate Drug ResistanceEpithelial Membrane Protein-1 as a Biomarker of Gefitinib ResistanceMethylation Biomarkers of Drug Resistance in CancerSTAT3 and Resistance to CisplatinBiomarkers of Radiation Therapy for CancerRole of Biomarkers in Drug Development in OncologyMolecular Imaging of Tumor as a Guide to Drug DevelopmentUse of PET to Assess Response to Anticancer DrugsUse of MRI to Assess Response to Anticancer DrugsBiomarkers in Plucked Hair for Assessing Cancer TherapySafety Biomarkers in Oncology StudiesRole of Biomarkers in Phase I Clinical Trials of Anticancer DrugsMet Receptors as Targets for Anticancer DrugsBiomarkers According to Organ/Type of CancerBladder Cancer BiomarkersDetection of FGFR3 Mutations in Urine for Diagnosis of Bladder CancerNMP22 BladderChekUrinary Telomerase as Biomarker for Detection of Bladder CancerConcluding Remarks Abut Biomarkers of Urinary CancerBrain Tumor Biomarkers-3-3zeta Positive Expression as a Prognostic Biomarker for GBMALDH1A3 as a Biomarker of GBMBiomarkers to Predict Response to EGFR InhibitorsBiomarkers for Predicting Recurrence of MeningiomasCD133 as Biomarker of Resistance to RadiotherapyCirculating Microvesicles as BiomarkersCSF Attractin as a Biomarker of Malignant AstrocytomaELTD1 as a Biomarker of GliomasMethylation Profiling of Brain TumorsMetabolite Biomarkers of Brain TumorsmiRNAs as Biomarkers of Brain TumorsMRI Biomarker for Response of Brain Tumor to TherapyMultigene Predictor of Outcome in GBMNeuroimaging Biomarkers Combined with DNA Microarray AnalysisProteomic Analysis of CSF for Identification of Biomarkers for GliomasReceptor Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase в as Biomarker of GliomasSerum Protein FingerprintingVEGF-R2 as Biomarker of Angiogenesis in Brain TumorsFuture Prospects of Biomarkers of Malignant GliomasBone Tumor BiomarkersCytogenetics for the Study of Bone and Soft Tissue TumorsBiomarkers of Ewing’s TumorsRole of Biomarkers in the Diagnosis of Bone TumorsBreast Cancer BiomarkersAutoantibody Biomarkers of Breast CancerBiomarkers of Breast Cancer in BreathBiomarkers for Breast Cancer in Nipple Aspiration FluidCirculating Tumor DNA as Biomarker of Breast CancerCirculating Exosomes as Biomarkers of Breast CancerFlow Cytometry for Quantification of Biomarker Expression PatternsPlasma Proteomics for Biomarkers of Breast CancerQuantitative Realtime PCR Assays for Biomarker ValidationCdk6 as a Biomarker of Breast CancerCentromere Protein-FCarbonic Anhydrase IXG88 as a Biomarker of Progression of ER+ Breast CancerGlycomic Biomarkers of Breast CancerHER-2/neu OncoproteinHigh Mobility Group Protein A2Hypermethylated Genes as Biomarkers of Metastatic Breast CancerLipocalin 2 as Biomarker of Breast Cancer ProgressionLong Intervening non-coding RNAsMammaglobinmiRNA Biomarkers of Breast CancerPodocalyxinProneurotensin and ProenkephalinProliferating Cell Nuclear AntigenProtein Kinase C as a Predictive Biomarker of Metastatic Breast CancerRetinoblastoma Tumor Suppressor Gene as a BiomarkerRiboflavin Carrier ProteinRisk of Invasive Cancer after Diagnosis of Ductal Carcinoma In SituSerum CA 15-3 as Biomarker of Prognosis in Advanced Breast CancerStage-Specific Embryonic Antigen-3Suppressor of Deltex ProteinTumor Microenvironment as Biomarker of Metastasis in Breast CancerType III TGF-P Receptor as Regulator of Cancer ProgressionDiagnostic Tests Based on Breast Cancer GenesPrognostic Role of Breast Cancer GenesProtein Biomarkers for Breast Cancer PreventionBiomarkers to Evaluate Efficacy of ChemopreventionBiomarkers of Response to Chemotherapy of Breast CancerBiomarker-Guided Decisions for Breast Cancer TherapyConcluding Remarks and Future Prospects of Breast Cancer BiomarkersCervical Cancer BiomarkersGastrointestinal Cancer BiomarkersEsophageal Cancer BiomarkersGastric Cancer BiomarkersColorectal Cancer BiomarkersHead and Neck CancerLeukemia BiomarkersChromosome Translocations in LeukemiasDNA Methylation Biomarkers in LeukemiaGene Mutations as Biomarkers in LeukemiaMolecular Diagnostic Techniques for LeukemiaProteomic Technologies for Discovering Biomarkers of LeukemiaBiomarkers of Chronic Lymphocytic LeukemiaBiomarkers of Chronic Myeloid LeukemiaBiomarkers of Drug Resistance in LeukemiaLymphoma BiomarkersLiver Cancer BiomarkersBiomarkers Indicating Lower Risk of HCC in Coffee DrinkersMetabonomic Profiles Discriminate HCC from Liver CirrhosisUrinary Biomarkers of HCCLung Cancer BiomarkersAutoantibodies as Biomarkers in Lung CancerBiomarkers Associated with Neuroendocrine Differentiation in NSCLCBiomarkers of Chronic Inflammation in Lung CancerBiomarkers for Predicting Sensitivity to Chemotherapy in Lung CancerBiomarkers for Prediction of Sensitivity to EGFR InhibitorsCTCs as Biomarkers of Lung CancerGene Expression Profiling for Biomarkers of Lung CancerMethylation Biomarkers of Lung CancermiRNA Biomarkers in Lung CancerNoninvasive Detection of Lung Cancer Using Exhaled BreathSerum Protein Biomarkers of Lung CancertNOX as Biomarker of Lung CancerTumor-Derived DNA and RNA Markers in BloodVolatile Organic Compounds in the Exhaled BreathMalignant Pleural MesotheliomaMelanoma BiomarkersNasopharyngeal Carcinoma BiomarkersProteomic Biomarkers of Nasopharyngeal CancermiRNA Biomarkers of Nasopharyngeal CarcinomaOral Cancer BiomarkersOvarian Cancer BiomarkersCA125 as Biomarker of Ovarian CancerEpitomics Approach for Ovarian Cancer Biomarkers in SerumFGF18 as a Biomarker in Ovarian CancerGene Expression Studies in Ovarian CancerHE4 Protein in Urine as a Biomarker for Ovarian CancerHematogenous Metastasis of Ovarian CancerHtrAl as a Biomarker of Response to Chemotherapy in Ovarian CancerMutation of Genes in Ovarian CancerSerum Biomarkers of Ovarian Cancer PrognosisTIM-3 as a Biomarker of Ovarian CancerConcluding Remarks on Biomarker-Based Tests of Ovarian CancerPancreatic Cancer BiomarkersDiscovery and Validation of Pancreatic Cancer BiomarkersCancer Stem Cells as Biomarkers of Pancreatic CancerCirculating Exosomes as Biomarkers of Pancreatic CancerHistone Modifications Used as Biomarkers in Pancreatic CancermiRNA Biomarkers of Pancreatic CancerMacrophage Inhibitory Cytokine-1 as Biomarker of Pancreatic CancerProteomic Biomarkers of Pancreatic CancerConcluding Remarks on Biomarkers of Pancreatic CancerParathyroid Cancer BiomarkersPeripheral Nerve TumorsBiomarkers of NeurofibromatosisProstate CancerB7-H3 as Biomarker of Prostate CancerCancer Genetics-Guided Biomarker Signatures of Prostate CancerDetection of Prostate Cancer Biomarkers in UrineDetection of Prostatic Intraepithelial NeoplasiaEpigenetic Biomarkers of Prostate CancerExosomes as Biomarkers of Prostate CancerGene Expression Analysis of Prostate CancerGenetic Biomarkers of Prostate CancerIdentification of Prostate Cancer mRNA BiomarkersKallikreins as Biomarkers of Prostate CancerLCM for Diagnosis of Prostate CancerMicroarray for Diagnosis of Prostate CancermiRNA Biomarkers of Prostate CancerProstate Cancer Biomarkers in SemenPSA as Biomarker of Prostate CancerProPSA as Biomarker of Prostate CancerProstate Health IndexProstasomes in Blood as Biomarker of Prostate CancerSarcosine as a Metabolic Biomarker of Prostate CancerSilenced CDH13 Gene as a Biomarker of CancerSerum-Protein FingerprintingConcluding Remarks on Biomarkers of Prostate CancerRenal Cancer BiomarkersGene Expression Profile of RCC for BiomarkersmiRNA Biomarkers of Renal CancerUse of Proteomics for Detection of RCC BiomarkersUse of RCC Biomarkers for Prognosis and TherapyThyroid cancer BiomarkersDetection of BRAF MutationGene Expression Biomarkers of Thyroid CancermiRNA Biomarkers of Thyroid CancerMultiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2B as Risk Factor for Thyroid CancerRole of the NCI in Cancer BiomarkersFuture Prospects for Cancer BiomarkersCancer Biomarker Research at Academic InstitutionsFuture Challenges in the Discovery of Cancer BiomarkersReferencesBiomarkers of Disorders of the Nervous SystemDiscovery of Biomarkers for Neurological DisordersBiomarker Identification in the CSF Using ProteomicsBiomarker Identification in the CSF Using LipidomicsCerebral Microdialysis for the Study of Biomarkers of Cerebral MetabolismDetection of Protein Biomarkers of CNS Disorders in the BloodGenomic Technologies for Study of Biomarkers of Neurological DisordersBrain Imaging for Detection of BiomarkersBiomarkers of the Aging Brain Cellular Biomarker of Aging of the BrainCSF F2-Isoprostanes as Biomarker of Aging BrainIL-6 as a Biomarker of Cognitive Impairment with AgingProtein Aggregation as a Biomarker of Aging BrainTelomere Shortening as a Biomarker of Aging Brain and DementiaData Mining for Biomarkers of Neurological DisordersAntibodies as Biomarkers in Disorders of the Nervous SystemBiomarkers of Neural RegenerationBiomarkers of Disruption of Blood-Brain BarrierBiomarkers of NeurotoxicityGlial Fibrillary Acidic Protein as Biomarker of NeurotoxicitySingle-Stranded DNA as a Biomarker of Neuronal ApoptosisBiomarkers of Neurogenetic DisordersCharcot-Marie Tooth DiseaseDuchenne and Becker Muscular DystrophyEarly-Onset Torsion DystoniaFragile X SyndromeGenetic Neurotransmitter DisordersHereditary Neuropathy with Liability to Pressure PalsiesHereditary Metabolic Storage Disorders with Neurologic ManifestationsGaucher DiseasePompe’s DiseaseMitochondrial Disorders Affecting the Nervous SystemSpinal Muscular AtrophyBiomarkers of SMABiomarkers of Neurodegenerative DisordersBiomarkers of DementiaBiomarkers of Vascular DementiaBiomarkers of Alzheimer’s DiseaseThe Ideal Biomarker for ADMethods for Determining Biomarkers of ADGene Expression Patterns in ADMagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in ADMicroRNAs as Biomarkers of Neurodegenerative DisordersMRI for Biomarkers of ADNanotechnology to Measure Ap-Derived Diffusible LigandsPET Scanning for Biomarkers of ADSimultaneous Measurement of Several Biomarkers for ADTargeting of Chemokine Receptor as Biomarker for Brain ImagingBiomarkers of AD in CSFCSF Sulfatide as a Biomarker for ADCSF Reelin as Biomarker of ADMonitoring of Synthesis and Clearance Rates of Ap in the CSFProtein Biomarkers of AD in CSFTau Proteins in CSFTests for the Detection of Ap in CSFTests Combining CSF tau and ApBlood Biomarkers of ADA Serum Protein-Based Algorithm for the Detection of ADAmyloid Precursor ProteinDetection of Aggregated Misfolded Proteins in the BloodLipid Biomarkers for Preclinical Detection of ADLymphocyte Proliferation TestMetabolomic Biomarker ProfilingPlasma Protein Biomarkers of ADProtein Kinase C in Red Blood CellsUrine Tests for ADA Biomarker-Based Skin Test for ADSalivary Biomarkers of ADApplications of Biomarkers of ADBiomarker Changes in Autosomal Dominantly Inherited ADCorrelation of Imaging Biomarkers with CSF Biomarkers of ADGenetic Tests for ADHumanin as a Biomarker as Well as Neuroprotective in ADPlasma Biomarkers of Drug Response in ADPredict AD ProjectTOMM40 Gene and Risk of ADUse of Biomarkers to Predict AD in Patients with MCIConcluding Remarks about Biomarkers for AD and Future ProspectsBiomarkers of Parkinson’s DiseaseAutoantibodies as Biomarkers of PDBiomarkers of PD Based on Gene Expression in BloodCardiac Denervation as a Biomarker of PDGenetic Biomarkers of PDImaging Biomarkers of PDMetabolic Brain Networks as BiomarkersMetabonomic Biomarker Profile for Diagnosis and Monitoring of PDProtein Biomarkers of PDP11 Protein as a Biomarker of Depression in PDSerum Vitamin D as a Biomarker of PDBiomarkers of Prodromal PDFuture Needs for Biomarkers of PDBiomarkers of Huntington’s DiseaseGenetic Biomarker of HD ProgressionQuantitative MRI Measurement of Brain Atrophy as Biomarker of HDMetabolic Networks as Biomarkers of Preclinical Huntington DiseaseBiomarkers of Wilson’s DiseaseBiomarkers of Amyotrophic Lateral SclerosisALS Biomarker Detection in Blood Versus CSFBiomarkers of Neuroinflammation in ALSGenetic Biomarkers of ALSImaging Bio markers of ALSMetabolomic Biomarkers of ALSProteomic Biomarkers of ALSIdeal Biomarker of ALSFuture of Biomarkers of ALSHIV-1-Associated Neurocognitive DisordersBiomarkers of Dementia in HIV-1-Infected PatientsBiomarkers of Autoimmune EncephalitisBiomarkers of Prion Diseases-3-3 Protein and tTau/P-Tau RatioBioluminescence Imaging as a Surrogate Biomarker of Prion InfectivitymiRNAs as Biomarkers of Prion-Induced NeurodegenerationPrion Protein Detection by Real-Time Quaking-Induced ConversionPrions in the Urine of Patients with Variant CJDBiomarkers of Multiple SclerosisAntibodies in Multiple SclerosisAntibodies to GalactocerebrosideAntibodies to Myelin Oligodendrocyte GlycoproteinBrain N-Acetylaspartylglutamate as Biomarker of Cognitive Function in MSBrain Imaging Biomarkers of Multiple SclerosisMRI Biomarkers of Multiple SclerosisMolecular ImagingBiomarkers of Response to Therapy of Multiple SclerosisDNA Motifs in the Blood as Biomarkers of Response to TreatmentGene ExpressionLymphocyte Subsets as Biomarkers of Therapeutic ResponseNeurofilamentsVitamin D as Predictor of Activity and Progression of MSCSF Biomarkers in Multiple SclerosisCSF Cystatin C as a Biomarker of Multiple SclerosisDetecting Autoantibodies in Multiple SclerosisSwitch-Associated Protein 70 Antibodies in Multiple SclerosisGelsolin as a Biomarker of Multiple SclerosisMatrix Metalloproteinases as Biomarkers in Multiple SclerosisOligoclonal Bands as Biomarkers of MSSerum Proteomic Pattern Analysis in Multiple SclerosisT Cells as Biomarkers of Multiple SclerosisConcluding Remarks and Future Perspective for Biomarkers of Multiple SclerosisBiomarkers of Cerebrovascular DisordersBiomarkers of StrokeEtiological Biomarkers of Ischemic StrokeBrain Natriuretic Peptide as a Biomarker for Cardioembolic StrokeBrain Lactate and N-Acetylaspartate as Biomarkers of StrokeCRP as Biomarker of Risk of StrokeCSF Biomarkers in Acute StrokeGene Expression in Blood Following Ischemic StrokeGlutathione S-Transferase-nIntercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 as Biomarker of Ischemic StrokeLp-PLA2 and CRP as Biomarkers for StrokeMatrix Metalloproteinase-9miRNAs as Biomarkers of StrokeNeuroserpin Polymorphisms as a Biomarker of StrokeNMDA Receptors as Biomarkers of Excitotoxicity in StrokeNucleosomes as Biomarkers of StrokePARK7 and Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinase a as Biomarkers of StrokeVisinen-Like Protein 1Biomarker Panels for StrokeFuture Prospects for Biomarkers of StrokeBiomarkers of Cerebral VasospasmBiomarkers of Intracerebral HemorrhageBiomarkers of Hypoxic Brain DamageBiomarkers of Ischemic Brain DamageD-Dimer as a Biomarker of Cerebral Venous ThrombosisBiomarkers of Traumatic Brain InjuryTechnologies for Identification of Biomarkers of TBICerebral Microdialysis for Study of Biomarkers of TBIProteomic Technologies for Biomarkers of TBISystemy Biology Approach for Discovery of Biomarkers of TBIBiomarkers of TBIAP as a Biomarker of TBIDiffusion Tensor Imaging in TBIGlial Fibrillary Acidic Protein as Biomarker of TBIHyperphosphorylated Axonal Neurofilament ProteinIL-6 and Nerve Growth Factor as Biomarkers of TBIMyelin Basic ProteinNeurofilament Heavy ChainSerum S100P as Biomarker of TBISNTF as a Biomarker for Predicting Cognitive Decline after Mild TBITau as Biomarker of TBIUbiquitin C-Terminal Hydrolase-L1Biomarkers of Inflicted TBI in InfantsBiomarkers of ConcussionClinical Applications of Biomarkers of TBIBiomarkers of CNS InfectionsBiomarkers of Bacterial MeningitisBiomarkers of Viral Infections of CNSBiomarkers of CNS HIV InfectionCSF Kynurenic Acid Level as a Biomarker of Tick-Borne EncephalitisBiomarkers of EpilepsyBiochemical Markers of EpilepsyBiomarkers of Temporal Lobe EpilepsyBiomarkers of Drug-Resistant EpilepsyGenetic EpilepsiesElectrophysiological Biomarkers of EpilepsyImaging Biomarkers of EpilepsyProtein Biomarkers of Inflammation in EpilepsyBiomarkers of Normal Pressure HydrocephalusBiomarkers of Pseudotumor CerebriBiomarkers of Retinal DisordersBiomarkers of age-Related Macular DegenerationBiomarkers of Sleep DisordersBiomarker of Excessive Daytime SleepinessBiomarkers of Obstructive Sleep ApneaBiomarkers of Restless Legs SyndromeBiomarkers of PainBiomarkers of Disorders with Musculoskeletal PainBiomarkers of Neuropathic PainBrain Insular Glutamate as Biomarker of FibromyalgiaBiomarkers of Visceral PainBiomarkers of MigraineBiomarkers of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue SyndromeBiomarkers of Psychiatric DisordersAnorexia NervosaAttention-Deficit Hyperactivity DisorderBiomarkers of AutismEpigenetics of ASDGastrointestinal Microbiota Disturbances and ASDGenetic Factors in ASDImmune Biomarkers of ASDMetabolic Disturbances in AutismNeurophysiological BiomarkersRole of Oxidative Stress in AutismTest for ASD Based on a 55-Gene Expression PanelUmbilical Cord BiomarkersBiomarkers of Bipolar DisorderBiomarkers of DepressionBiomarkers and Response to Antidepressant TreatmentCingulate Cortex Activity and Response to AntidepressantsGenetic Biomarkers of Response to AntidepressantsInflammatory Biomarkers of Depression and PsychosisP11 as a Biomarker of DepressionPanels of Blood-Based Biomarkers for Diagnosis of MDDPlasma Metabonomics for Diagnosis of MDDPost-Partum DepressionBiomarkers of Posttraumatic Stress DisorderBiomarkers of risk factors for PTSDBiomarkers of therapeutic responseBiomarkers of PsychosisBiomarkers of SchizophreniaBiomarkers of Abnormalities of Visual Information ProcessingGenetic Biomarkers of SchizophreniaGene Expression Analysis of Blood for Biomarkers of SchizophreniaMetabolic Biomarkers of SchizophreniaProteomic Studies for Biomarkers of SchizophreniaBiomarkers of SuicideReferencesBiomarkers of Cardiovascular DisordersEpidemiology of Cardiovascular DiseaseBiomarkers of Cardiovascular DiseasesBiomarkers of Acute Myocardial InfarctionGenetic Biomarkers of Cardiovascular DisordersMethods for Identification of Cardiovascular BiomarkersApplication of Proteomics for Biomarkers of Cardiovascular DiseaseTargeted MS-based Pipeline ApproachCardiovascular Disease Biomarker PanelDetection of Biomarkers of Myocardial Infarction in Saliva by a NanobiochipMetabolomic Technologies for Biomarkers of Myocardial IschemiaImaging Biomarkers of Cardiovascular DiseaseAnnexin A5 as an Imaging Biomarker of Cardiovascular DiseaseCardiovascular MRICardiovascular Hybrid ImagingMyocardial Perfusion ImagingImplantable Magnetic Biosensors for Detecting Cardiac BiomarkersApplications of Biomarkers of Cardiovascular DiseaseBiomarkers for Ischemic Heart Disease and Myocardial InfarctionTroponinNatriuretic PeptideCopeptinCreatine Kinase Muscle BrainmiRNAs as Biomarkers of Acute Coronary SyndromeMyoglobinFatty Acid Binding ProteinGrowth Differentiation Factor-15High Density Lipoprotein 2Cripto-1 as a Biomarker of Myocardial InfarctionCataract as a Biomarker of Ischemic Heart DiseasePlasma CD93 as a Biomarker for Coronary Artery DiseasePlasma Fetuin-A Levels and the Risk of Myocardial InfarctionYKL-40 as an Inflammatory Biomarker in Ischemic Heart DiseaseBiomarkers of CardiomyopathymiRNA Biomarkers of Peripartum CardiomyopathyTakotsubo CardiomyopathyTroponin T Levels in Hypertrophic CardiomyopathyBiomarkers of Heart FailureAnnexin A5 for Prognosis of Heart FailureAngiogenesis BiomarkersP-2a Protein as a Biomarker of Heart FailureDesminGalectin-3 as Biomarker of Acute Heart FailureG Protein-coupled Receptor Kinase-2 as Biomarker of CHFKIF6 Gene as Biomarker of Heart FailureMetabolic Biomarkers of Heart FailuremiRNA Biomarkers of Heart FailureNatriuretic Peptide as Biomarker of Heart FailureOxidative Stress as Biomarker of Heart FailureFuture Prospects for Biomarkers of Heart FailureBiomarkers for Atherosclerosisp21-3 Locus and Coronary AtherosclerosisAdipocyte Enhancer-binding Protein 1Gene Signatures on Leucocytes as Biomarkers of AtherosclerosisGhrelin as a Biomarker of AtherosclerosisImaging Biomarkers of Hypercholesterolemia/AtherosclerosisInflammatory Biomarkers of AtherosclerosisLipid-modified Proteins as Biomarkers of AtherosclerosisLp-PLA2 as Biomarker of Atherosclerotic Heart DiseaseMetabolomic Profile in HypercholesterolemiaNitric Oxide Impairment and AtherosclerosisOxygen Free Radicals as Biomarkers of AtherosclerosisProteomic Profiles of Serum Inflammatory Biomarkers of AtherosclerosisBiomarkers of Coronary Heart DiseaseApolipoproteins as Risk Factors for Coronary Heart DiseaseCRP as Biomarker of Risk for Coronary Heart DiseaseHigh Level of Blood Ceramides as a Biomarker of CHDImpairment of EPCs by Oxidative Stress as a Biomarker of DiseaseRole of TNF in Acute Coronary SyndromesSerum Parathyroid Hormone as Biomarker of CHDSerum Stem Cell Factor as a Biomarker of CHDVILCAD Biomarker Score for Prediction of Long-term Mortality in CHDBiomarkers for Pulmonary Arterial HypertensionBiomarkers of Abdominal Aortic AneurysmBiomarkers of Thrombotic Disorders Biomarkers of Arterial ThromboembolismNanoparticles as Synthetic Biomarkers of Thrombus FormationBiomarkers of Venous ThromboembolismBNP and cTnT as Biomarkers of Outcome in Pulmonary EmbolismD-dimer as Biomarker of Venous ThromboembolismMolecular Biomarkers of Venous ThromboembolismGenetic Biomarkers for Cardiovascular DiseaseBiomarkers of Inherited CardiomyopathiesGene Mutations in Pulmonary Arterial HypertensionGene Variant as a Risk Factor for Sudden Cardiac DeathGenetic Biomarkers of Early Onset Myocardial InfarctionGenetic Biomarkers of AtherosclerosisIL-1 Gene Polymorphism as Biomarker of Cardiovascular DiseaseIL-6R Signaling Pathway and Coronary Heart DiseaseKallikrein Gene Mutations in Cardiovascular DiseaseKallikrein Gene and Essential HypertensionMutations in the Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor GeneMutations within Several Genes that Code for Ion ChannelPolymorphisms of the eNOS Gene and Angina PectorisLipoprotein (a) GeneticsPolymorphisms in the Apolipoprotein C GenePolymorphisms in the Apolipoprotein E GenePolymorphism in the Angiotensinogen GeneMultiple Biomarkers for Prediction of Death from Cardiovascular DiseaseRole of Biomarkers in the Management of Cardiovascular DiseaseBiomarkers in the Diagnosis/Prognosis of Myocardial InfarctionBiomarkers for Prevention of Cardiovascular DiseaseCreactive Protein as Biomarker of Response to Statin TherapyHSP72 and eNOS as Biomarkers of Cardioprotective Effect of HBOMultimarker Panel for Prognosis in Chronic Heart FailureMolecular Signature Analysis in Management of Cardiovascular DiseasesPresage ST2 AssayRole of Circulating Biomarkers and Mediators of Cardiovascular DysfunctionUse of Protein Biomarkers for Monitoring Acute Coronary SyndromesUse of Biomarkers for Prognosis of Recurrent Atrial FibrillationUse of Multiple Biomarkers for Monitoring of Cardiovascular DiseaseUse of Biomarkers in the Management of Peripheral Arterial DiseaseUse of Biomarkers in the Management of HypertensionSystems Approach to Cardiovascular Biomarker ResearchReferencesBiomarkers of Pulmonary DiseasesAssociation of Biomarkers of Inflammation with Lung Function in the ElderlyBiomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Lung DiseasesBiomarkers of Community-acquired PneumoniaBiomarkers of Acute Lung Injury and Respiratory Distress SyndromeCytokine/Chemokine Biomarkers of SARSPlasma Biomarkers Related to InflammationUrinary NO as BiomarkerBiomarkers of Interstitial Lung DiseasePulmonary Surfactant Proteins as Biomarkers for Lung DiseasesSerum KL-6 as Biomarker of Interstitial Lung DiseaseBiomarkers of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary DiseaseAlpha1-antitrypsin Gene Polymorphisms Predisposing to EmphysemaBiomarkers of Extracellular Matrix Turnover in COPDBiomarkers of Lung Failure in COPDBNP as a Biomarker of Chronic Pulmonary DiseaseChromagranin A (CgA) as Biomarker of Airway Obstruction in SmokersC-reactive Protein as a Biomarker of COPDGene Expression Profile in Peripheral Blood of Patients with COPDHyperuricemia as a Biomarker of Early Mortality in COPDIncreased Expression of PIGF as a Biomarker of COPDBiomarkers of AsthmaBiomarker for Rhinovirus-induced Asthma ExacerbationBiomarkers for Predicting Response to Corticosteroid TherapyComparison of Biomarkers of Asthma and COPDCytokines as Biomarkers of Asthma SeverityExaled NO as a Biomarker of AsthmaEndothelin-1 in Exhaled Breath as Biomarker of AsthmaIgE as Guide to Dosing of Omalizumab for AsthmaBiomarkers of Cystic FibrosisReferencesBiomarkers in Gynecology and ObstetricsBiomarkers of MenopauseBiomarkers of Premenstrual Dysphoric DisorderBiomarkers of EndometriosisBiomarkers for PreeclampsiaPathogenesis of PreeclampsiaMetabolomic Biomarkers in Urine in PreeclampsiaProtein Biomarker of Preeclampsia in UrineProtein Biomarkers of Preeclampsia in CSFProtein HtrAl as a Biomarker for PreeclampsiaPlacental Growth Factor as a Biomarker for PreeclampsiasFltl and Soluble Endoglin as Biomarkers of PreeclampsiaRNA BiomarkersGenes Associated with PreeclampsiaBiomarkers of Premature BirthProteomic Biomarkers of Premature BirthBiomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Complicated PregnanciesFetal Biomarkers in Maternal BloodMetabolic Biomarkers of Prenatal Disorders in the MotherReferencesBiomarkers & Personalized MedicinePharmacogeneticsBiomarkers and PharmacogeneticsPharmacogenomicsPharmacoproteomicsSingle Cell Proteomics for Personalized MedicineRole of Biomarkers in Development of Personalized DrugsMetabolomic Biomarker-based Drug DiscoveryUse of Biomarkers for Developing MAb Therapy in OncologyBiomarker Tests for Molecularly Targeted TherapiesBiobanking, Biomarkers and Personalized Medicine in EUBioinformatics to Sort Biomarker Data for Personalized MedicineBiomarkers for Monitoring Response to TherapyDrug Rescue by Biomarker-based Personalized MedicineFuture Role of Biomarkers in Personalized MedicineReferencesBiomarkers and Regulatory IssuesBiomarker ValidationFDA Criteria for a Valid BiomarkerFDA Letter of Support for BiomarkersRole of NIST in Validation of Cancer BiomarkersQuality Specifications for BNP and NT-proBNP as Cardiac Biomarker AssaysNational Biomarker Development AllianceFDA Perspective of Biomarkers in Clinical TrialsFDA and Predictive MedicineBiomarkers and FDA’s Voluntary Genomic Data SubmissionRole of Imaging Biomarkers in Approval of DrugsRegulatory Oversight of Biomarker Tests for Targeted TherapiesFDA and BiomarkersFDA Consortium Linking Genetic Biomarkers to Serious Adverse EventsOncology Biomarker Qualification InitiativeCritical Path InitiativePredictive Safety Testing ConsortiumThe Twenty-First Century Cures Act and BiomarkersFast Path ProgramsRegulatory Challenges in the Biomarker FieldFDA Requirements of Biomarkers and Companion DiagnosticsReferencesFuture of BiomarkersUnfulfilled Needs in BiomarkersChallenges Facing the Biomarker IndustryPitfalls in the Discovery and Development of BiomarkersApplication of Biomarkers in Medical PracticeFuture Role of Biomarkers in HealthcareApplications of Biomarkers Beyond HealthcareCombating BioterrorismBiomarkers for Monitoring Human Exposure to Environmental ToxinsReference
 
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