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Chinese International Students’ Stressors and Coping Strategies in the United States

ObjectivesEducational Importance of This StudyDefinitionsChinese International Students in the United States: Demographic Trends, Motivations, and Acculturation FeaturesThe History and Demographics of Chinese International StudentsChinese International Students in the United States: 1890-1950Chinese International Students in the United States: After 1978Chinese Students’ Motivation to Study AbroadChinese Students’ Group-Level Acculturation Features in AmericaCulture and Ethnic Relations in AmericaChinese Students ’ Group-Level Acculturation FeaturesCulture FeaturesSocial FeaturesEmployment and ImmigrationChinese International Students in the United States: Adjustment Problems and Coping BehaviorsChinese Students’ Adjustment IssuesAcademic ChallengesLanguage BarrierIncongruities in the Educational System Between China and the United StatesSociocultural ProblemsCultural Shock and Social IsolationFinancial LimitationsConcern over Visa Status and ImmigrationCoping and Help-Seeking BehaviorsBarrier to Pursuing CounselingCoping Resource and Social SupportPsychological Coping Strategies: Confucianism Endurance and Taoism “Take It Easy”Support MechanismFamily SupportSupport from Chinese Student CommunityBerry’s Stress-Coping FrameworkFactors in Berry’s ModelGroup-Level (Macro-Level) FactorsSociety of OriginSociety of SettlementGroup-Level AcculturationIndividual Level (Microlevel) FactorsFactors Existing Prior to AcculturationFactors Arising During AcculturationSummaryMethodology: Methodology JustificationData Sources and Collection ProceduresQuantitative Data CollectionSurvey ConstructionPilot WorkSurvey DistributionAnalysis of Survey DataQualitative Data CollectionSemi-structured InterviewsThe SampleInterview Structure and FormatReliability and ValidityAnalysis of the Qualitative DataEthical ConsiderationsSurvey FindingsDemographic DataSurvey FindingsStressorsCoping and Help-Seeking BehaviorsAcademic Stress and Academic Coping StrategySociocultural ChallengesLanguage Barrier and StrategiesFinancial Pressure and StrategiesJob Opportunities and Visa ProblemsAcculturation StrategyCoping StrategiesSummary of Individual VariablesChinese International Students’ Stressors in the United StatesInterview ResultsSettings of the StudyParticipantsInterview ResultsPersonal ConcernsLoneliness and HomesicknessPressure from Dating or MarriageJob Opportunities and Visa ProblemsFinancial PressureSociocultural ConcernsInteractions with AmericansLanguage and Culture DeficiencyValues ClashAcademic ConcernsLanguageAchievementInteractions with FacultiesSummary of StressorsChinese International Students’ Coping Strategies in the United StatesCoping StrategiesProblem-Focused StrategiesDirect ActionHelp and Social Support SeekingEmotion-Focused StrategiesEnduranceTaoism “Take it Easy”AvoidanceDischarge EmotionsHierarchical Ordering of PrioritiesAcceptancePositive ReappraisalCoping Beliefs and Attitudes Towards CounselingPerceptions Toward CounselingLack of Knowledge CounselingLack of Need for CounselingDoubts About the Ability of a “Stranger” to HelpStigma Attached to Counseling ServiceAlternative Sources of SupportExpectations and SuggestionsEthnical Match and Gender MatchCounselor Style: Expected Greater Interaction and Expertise from CounselorsSuggestionsSummary of Coping Strategies and BeliefsAn Examination of Individual-Level Factors in Stress and Coping ProcessIndividual-Level (Microlevel) FactorsFactors Prior to AcculturationAgeGenderMajorsExpectationKnowledge and SkillsFactors during AcculturationLength of StayAcculturation StrategiesCoping StrategiesSocial SupportSupport from FamilySupport from FriendsHost National SupportSupport from ChurchProfessional Support from CounselingSummarySummary of the StudyObjectivesMethodologyData AnalysisOverview of the ResultsChinese International Students’ StressorsPersonal ConcernsSociocultural ConcernsAcademic StressCoping Beliefs and Behaviors of Chinese International StudentsImplicationsAmerican University CommunityChinese International StudentsRecommendationsRecommendations for American UniversitiesRecommendations for ProfessorsRecommendations for Chinese International StudentsLimitations of the StudyImplications for Future Research
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