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Reliability and Validity

Reliability was enhanced by gathering responses regarding stress perception and life adaptation of individuals. Construct validity concerns how the instrument, in fact, measures the concepts in question. The research piloted the interview questions with three Chinese international students before beginning the data collection to enhance construct validity.

As for the language, all interviews were conducted in Mandarin Chinese. Bogdan and Taylor (1975) suggested, in order to communicate in an effective manner, the interview should be conducted at the participants’ level of language.

All interviews were translated verbatim from Mandarin Chinese to English. Utmost care was made to translate the meanings of the interview from Chinese to English. All interview contents were translated by the researcher who is fluent in both languages. In order to minimize the bias and error in data collection and analysis, upon the completion of data collection, the researchers sent back each interview transcript to the corresponding participant to check for inaccuracy or errors created through translation. All of participants in this study checked the data and transcripts. Interview sample questions also were checked by two professors who were familiar with and knowledgeable about the subject of the study. They also checked the whole qualitative data analysis process. In addition, the audit trail was given to an independent researcher for feedback on the research conceptualization and research processes. He also carefully checked all of the finding result (themes, categories, etc.) and traced back to the original data to see if it made sense.

Also, students were assured that their responses would not be associated with their names. Based on mutual trust, I attained the good rapport with interviewees during the interviews. All interviews were conducted on or around the campus. In order to accommodate each subject, the interview took place at the subject’s choices of location around the campus, such as the library or dorm. Interviews averaged 1 h in length. They were tape-recorded and then the tapes were transcribed. For three participants who felt uncomfortable being tape-recorded, the interviews were recorded in notebooks by the researcher.

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