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i It should be noted that many Maori children in the 1970s (and today) visit the sea-shore reasonably frequently with their families, to gather kaimoana (traditional seafoods). Judith Simon (1996) has pointed out the tendency for Pakeha teachers to be unable to recognize and therefore validate the kinds of knowledges that Maori children had, since the teachers themselves were ignorant of these—for example, the knowledge related to attending tangihanga (Maori funerals) or gathering kaimoana (seafood).

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