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A short course of lectures
«Bats in the Anthropocene: Conservation of Bats in a Changing World»





Behavioral ResponsesConservation and ManagementMitigation StrategiesFilling Regional Gaps—Establishing New NetworksThe MediterraneanPesticide Impacts on Bat PopulationsThe Effects of Roads on Bats—Habitat Destruction, Fragmentation, Degradation and Collision MortalityBehavior—Local Commitment to Conservation of Bats and Bat HabitatFuture DirectionsOffshore Wind FacilitiesClearcut and Deferment HarvestsDevelopment of GatingMitigating Bat MortalityFilovirusesCommonalities of Existing NetworksNon-lethal Methods of MitigationEnforcement of Hunting ProhibitionMauritius and MadagascarFilling in Biogeographical Knowledge GapsUnderstory VegetationOverview of Bat HuntingZoonotic Viruses of Bats and Their SpillOverBuildings as Maternity RoostsEuropeConservation in the Era of Molecular PhylogeneticsRecommendationsEducation and Awareness RaisingInventory and Monitoring ProgramsEducation/OutreachBats in the Anthropogenic Matrix:Decreased Fitness Owing to Indirect ThreatsSpatial PatternsNetworking Networks for Global Bat ConservationAustraliaAdaptability of Species to Urban Areas: General Trends, Species-Specific Differences and Future ResearchWhich Bat Species Use Buildings?Effects of Agricultural Intensity on Bat Assemblage Structure, Behavior, and EcologyPhylogeny Versus Functional EcologyThe Problem of “Taxonomic Inflation”Bats and RoadsBackgroundListing Species for ProtectionA Basic Question: What is a Species?EuropeBat Life HistoryHuman Perceptions of Individual SpeciesEmpirical ValuesBenefits of a Synanthropic Lifestyle in BatsExpert OpinionChanging Attitudes and Behaviors Toward Bats in the Developing WorldLoggingII Emerging DisesasesMature, Large Diameter TreesDetermining Hunting Impacts on Bat PopulationsBat VisionRhabdovirusesBat Responses to Silvicultural TreatmentsDirect Effect: Viruses Killing BatsCute, Creepy, or Crispy—How Values, Attitudes, and Norms Shape Human Behavior Toward BatsKnowledgeAbout This BookHabitat FragmentationArtificial Hibernacula and Maternity RoostsExisting Bat Conservation NetworksMajor Forest AreasLoggingDark Matters: The Effects of Artificial Lighting on BatsAttitudesFuture ChallengesIndirect Effects: Biased Public PerceptionSpecies-Specific EffectsContrasting the Effects between North and South America and Europe, Asia and Australia Focusing on InsectivoresResponses of Tropical Bats to Habitat Fragmentation, Logging, and DeforestationAustraliaEvidence-Based Evaluation of the Effect of Urbanisation on Bats Worldwide Using a Meta-AnalysisOver-the-Road Methods: Gantries, Green Bridges, Hop-Overs and Adapted Road/Foot BridgesCumulative ImpactsHigh Versus Lower Levels of UrbanisationIV Conservation Approaches, Educational and Outreach ProgramsThe Importance of Connectivity and the Maintenance of Existing FlightlinesExploitation of Bats for Bushmeat and MedicineExtractive IndustriesPreventing the Emergence of New Viral DiseasesNoise, Odor, Dust, and ActivityPest Suppression in the Face of Climate Change, Pesticides, and GM CropsEstimating Extinction Risk and Extinction Rate: The Role of PhylogeneticsEnvironmental ConservationGenetic ConsequencesChallenges to Network SustainabilityEducation of Growers and the PublicIndirect Effect—Killing of Bats for Virus SurveysBiases in Our Understanding of Responses of Tropical Bats to Habitat AlterationStakeholder Engagement and Citizen ScienceCan Roads Benefit Bats?Climate and Weather VariablesAssessing Attitudes, Values, and NormsZoonotic Viruses and Conservation of BatsTypes of Artificial LightBats and Water: Anthropogenic Alterations Threaten Global Bat PopulationsExample 1: The Outreach Program for the “Bat-Friendly House”Benefits of Sharing a Building with BatsThe PacificFunding Interventions and Research to Mitigate the Pteropodid–Grower ConflictEmerging Viral Diseases: Why Bats?Encourage Local Researchers and NGO'sTaxonomy as a Conservation Planning ToolRecommendationsObservational Studies on Bats at Street LightsMiningThailandAgriculture and Residual Tree CoverBodies of Water as a Drinking SourceDisease Ecology of WNSConservation in PracticeThe Extent of Feeding by Bats on Fruit Crops and Its ImplicationsSocial NormsSeasonality and Climate ChangeWaste WaterI Bats in Anthropogenically Changed LandscapesSouth AmericaNorth AmericaWhite-Nose Syndrome in BatsCave SelectionDisease MechanismsSparing, Sharing, and the Devaluation of Manufactured CapitalConservation in Principle: Avoidance, Mitigation, Compensation and EnhancementCombined Methods of MitigationStatus of P. Destructans/WNS in EuropeWhy Care About Bat Conservation?Thinning Young ForestsRelationship Between Species and Humans—Cultural Significance and Utility ValueIII Human-Bat ConflictsInsectivorous Bats and Silviculture: Balancing Timber Production and Bat ConservationData Acquisition and Meta-AnalysisImpacts of Light Pollution on Intraand Inter-specific CompetitionExample 2: Renovated Buildings Designated for Bat Conservation PurposesDeadwood Availability and Hollow Tree DensityWater, Roosts and ReproductionComposition and Estimates of Bat FatalitiesBuildings as Swarming SitesDestruction of Buildings Caused by Bat ExcretaHabitat RelationshipsMulti-spatial Scale Forest ManagementTree PlantationsJapanImpediments to Taxonomic ResearchTropical Bats in a Changing WorldExpansion of Geographic RangesEcology of Bats and Water in Drylands EnvironmentsRecent InitiativesConservation Ecology of Cave BatsExamples of Good PracticeBiological Control Agent—Weaver Ants Oecophylla longinodaFuture DirectionsTaxonomy and International AgreementsNetwork Structure and FunctionLight AvoidancePreyPatterns of Bat FatalityCumulative Effects, Extinction Debt and the Importance of ScaleRoad Class and SpeedThe Roles of Taxonomy and Systematics in Bat ConservationThe Barrier EffectCyprusEnhanced Access to Habitats by Using Buildings as Ecological Stepping StonesMeasuring Hunting Mortality RatesInsights from Long Term StudiesReview MethodologyAfricaBuildings as HibernaculaBodies of Water as a Foraging HabitatNectarivorous Bats and Pollination ServicesResponses to Landscape StructureBats in the AnthropoceneHarmful BatsWhat We Can Learn from Theories of Network Structure and FunctionAvoiding or Mitigating Roost Losses in BuildingsGeneral Considerations for the Conservation of Bats in BuildingsAfrica and the Indian OceanConservation of Bats in Buildings: Avoidance, Mitigation, and CompensationHabitat Conversion: A Key Aspect of Global ChangeParamyxovirusesToward a Global Network of NetworksHabitat Degradation—Light, Noise and Chemical PollutionConservation of Bat Populations and Population DynamicsResearch PrioritiesInsectivorous Bats and Pest LimitationBats in Urban EnvironmentsCapacity Building of Local Rangers/PA ManagersAfricaDecreased Fitness Owing to Direct ThreatsThe Biological Effects of Light PollutionResearch to Understand How to Protect BatsArea and Isolation EffectsSlope and AspectIncidental DisturbancePacific (Oceania)Legislative Approach to Reducing Pteropodid Damage to CropsDeclines in Cave BatsOrigins and ActivitiesUrbanisation and Its Effects on Bats—A Global Meta-AnalysisCoronavirusesMethodsMitigation and RestorationEdge EffectsRestoration of Water Sources and Related HabitatsRoadkillBats and Buildings: The Conservation of Synanthropic BatsComplexity of Bat Habitat NeedsConservation PolicyHunting Overview by RegionLoss of HabitatRegulated HuntingMalaysiaIndirect Effect—CullingEstimating RiskDo We Need a Global Network?Main Conservation Issues Related to Bat VirusesBats in the Anthropocene: The Conservation of a Nocturnal TaxonHow Hunting Affects BatsInfluence of Cave MicroclimateNegative Impacts on HumansGeneral PatternsResponses at the Population and Assemblage LevelBuildings as Shelters During Foraging BoutsRecovery Times After Timber HarvestRoost Site ProtectionThe Issue of Ecosystem Disservices of Bats to Agricultural ProductionDecoy CropsProtect Colony Locations at the RoostImportance of Bats for Cave EcosytemsProjected Changes in TechnologyExperimental Studies on Bats at Street LightsLife in CavesConservation ResponsesWhy Bat Hunting is a Conservation ProblemValuesSalvage LoggingSouth America, Central America, and the CaribbeanSecondary Forests and SuccessionThe Continuing Age of DiscoveryRecommendations for Conservation of Hunted BatsInterference of Light Pollution with Nocturnal NavigationPrior Attitudes and Values of Wildlife and NatureFood-Borne Zoonotic Disease Risk from Pteropodid BatsUrban WildlifeDefining Protected AreasGlossaryThe Growth of Light PollutionAgroforestry SystemsDownsides of Species ListingBat Conservation StatusStructural Characteristics of Effective Conservation Networks: Within Subgroup Cohesion, Across Subgroup Collaboration, Bridging Actors, and Peripheral ActorsSouth AsiaCompensating for Lost RoostsNegative Consequences of a Synanthropic Lifestyle in BatsDiscussionPathogen and Parasite ExposureVariable Retention HarvestsCounter Measures in Favour of Bat ConservationTheoryEcosystem Services Provided by Bats in Agricultural SystemsIncreased Fitness of Bats Using BuildingsEstimating Hunting Impact from Population DeclinesArtificial Water SourcesEffects on Selected Species InteractionsSecondary Effects—Infill and Increased Urban and Industrial DevelopmentUnder-the-Road Methods: Underpasses, Culverts and Other 'Tunnels'AgricultureRecommendations and Issues for Future ConsiderationAustralia and Papua New GuineaOverhunting as a Growing Concern for ConservationNetworking Networks for Global CoverageKnowledge GapsThreats to Water Sources Used by BatsNorth AmericaAsiaNew Zealand and AustraliaControl of Guns, Ammunition, and Other Bat Hunting ToolsLinking Farm Management, Ecosystem Services, and Landscape-Level ProcessesAppendix. List of Hunted Bat Species Showing Primary Use (Food or Medicine), Summarized by Region and Country. We Followed IUCN Regional ClassificationIsraelThe Conflict Between Pteropodid Bats and Fruit Growers: Species, Legislation and MitigationEducational EffortsImpacts of Wind Energy Development on Bats: A Global PerspectiveEffects of Light Pollution on Ecosystem Services Provided by BatsMore Research is Needed to Understand Hunting ImpactsDeterrents/Aversion AgentsTemporal PatternsNational and International Initiatives for the Protection of Cave BatsConservation Management to Mitigate Hunting ImpactsIndian SubcontinentConsequences for Humans Sharing Buildings with BatsSoutheast AsiaNegative Impacts on Bat Populations and EcosystemsWinners and Losers: Light-Tolerant and Light-Averse BatsNetting and Associated Tree ManagementHarvest Exclusion AreasEffects of Artificial Light on Physiological HomeostasisBuildings as Foraging SitesCave TourismWater Sources Used by BatsGroup Selection HarvestsLoss of Sources of WaterHuman–Bat Conflict in Buildings and the Legal Protection of Synanthropic BatsStrengthening Existing NetworksPrevious Experience and KnowledgeQuantifying Impact and Value Across Crops and BiomesLoss of Roosts Due to Demographic Changes in the Human PopulationThe Role of the Taxonomist in ConservationRegulated HuntingForest EdgePlantationsKnowledge Gaps, Future Challenges and Mitigation StrategiesTheoryEmpirical Attitudes Toward Animals and Factors Affecting ThemSynthesis and OutlookHow Do Bats Find and Use Buildings?Spatial and Temporal Scale Dependence in Responses to FragmentationConservation ThreatsHabitat Improvement and Effective Landscape-Scale PlanningStructure and MembershipRailAsiaTheories of Behavior and Behavioral Change
 
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