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Cellular analysis by atomic force microscopy

Cell Ability to DeformMonitoring Chitosan Effect on Cancerous CellsMechanosensitivity of Cancerous CellsStiffness as Cancer GradesCell Ability to AdhereSpecific Interactions in Living CellsReferencesCell Structure and FunctionsExtracellular MatrixThe ECM ProteinsProteoglycansOther Components of the ECM—HyaluronanCell MembraneMembrane StructureLipidsProteinsSurface ReceptorsIntegrinsCadherinsSelectinsImmunoglobulin FamilyGlycansCytoskeletonActin FilamentsMicrotubulesIntermediate FilamentsReferencesPrinciples of Atomic Force MicroscopyPrinciples of the AFM OperationCantileversDetection System of Cantilever DeflectionFeedback LoopScanning and Positioning SystemForce SpectroscopyCalibrationPhotodetector sensitivity (PSD)Correction factor к for PSD sensitivitySpring constantSader methodThermal tune methodAdded mass methodMethod of comparing with the known spring constantForce versus sample-distance conversionHydrodynamic dragForce detection limitScanner linearizationScanner velocity determinationReferencesQuantification of Cellular ElasticityMaterials Properties and Theoretical ModelsBasic Terms Used in Material MechanicsRheological ModelsMechanical behavior of soft materialsSoft glassy modelTensegrity theoryClassification of material properties based on indentationSingle-Cell Deformability MeasurementsExperimental Conditions for the AFMCriteria for Force Curve SelectionForce versus Indentation CurvesDetermination of Young's ModulusThe final Young's modulus calculationsDepth-Sensing AnalysisStiffness TomographyDistinct Factors Influencing Cell's ElasticityCalibration-based discrepancyVariability stemming from cell-related factorsThe influence of the AFM experimental conditionsDiscrepancies stemming from the Hertz contact mechanics theoryThe contact point determination and data analysisSubstrate propertiesComparing properties of human bladder cancer cellsReferencesAdhesive Properties Studied by AFMUnbinding of Molecules: Theoretical BasisBrief Introduction to Kramer's TheoryForce-Induced Single Bond DisruptionHierarchic Crossing through the Energy BarriersThe Energy Barrier HeightMultiple Bond RuptureSequential bond rupture: the "zipper-like" modelSequential bond rupture: the "parallel-like" modelComparing Unbinding Properties of Two Single ComplexesOther Theoretical Models for Single Molecule InteractionsDudko-Hummer-Szabo modelFriddle-Noy-De Yoreo modelAFM Measurements of Adhesive PropertiesAttachment of Molecules to Desired SurfacesAFM probe functionalizationPreparation of a cell probeCells preparation for the AFM measurementsInhibition of Binding SiteThe Unbinding of Molecular Complexes: Force CurvesParameters Derived from a Single Force CurveThe pull-off force and force histogramRelation between the unbinding force and the number of ruptured bondsThe rupture length and its histogramThe number of ruptured bondsThe unbinding probabilitySingle Molecule Interaction in Living Cells: A Case StudyProperties of N-Cadherin in Bladder Cancer Studied by AFMShape of the force curves for Ncad-GC4 complexUnbinding force dependence on loading rateForce histograms for Ncad-GC4 complexMultiple unbinding in human bladder cellsBell-Evans model parametersEnergy landscape reconstructionKinetics profilesSpecificity of the Ncadh-GC4 complexSummary for Ncadh-CG4 complexLiving Cell as a ProbeReferences

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