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Results

The results of the data analysis for this study follow the descriptive statistics of the demographics associated with the quota sample. Thereafter, the findings of the hypotheses are reported.

Demographics

The quota sample size for the study was 200 college and graduate students. According to Cerff,

The sample was comprised of 95 males (47.5%) and 105 females (52.5%). Students fell into four age categories: 116 (58.0%) were in the 1820 age group, 45 (22.5%) were in the 2021 agegroup, 15 (7.5%) were in the 2223 agegroup, and 24 (12%) were in the 25+ age group. The education demographics included four groups: 164(82.0%) held less than a bachelor’s degree, 25 (12.0%) had earned a bachelor’s degree, 10 (5.0%) held an honor’s degree, and 1 (0.5%) had a master’s degree.59

Reliability

The reliability of each of the instruments, namely the Hope Instrument, the NGSE Instrument and the MTL Scale, as described by the individual reporters and pertaining to this study in the South African context, is reviewed in this section.

Cerff noted: “ Winston et al. recorded the Cronbach alpha score for the Hope Instrument in a three part study as being .88, .91, and .92”60 demonstrating “high correlations here indicate that the scale is measuring its intended concept”.61 The research for Cerff’s 2006 study using the Hope Instrument yielded a Cronbach alpha score of 0.83, which is consistent with that of Winston et al. and indicates high reliability. Cerff noted:

The initial study by Winston et al. was carried out in South Africa and in the United States. The reliability score of this present study in a South African context is consistent with the scores yielded by the authors, indicating that the Hope Scale yields high reliability in both the South African and American context.62

According to Cerff, Chen et al. “recorded the Cronbach alpha score for three consecutive administrations of the NGSE as .87, .88, and .85 and high test- retest reliability coefficients”.63 Chen et al. pointed out that this yielded “a scale that is theory based, unidimensional, internally consistent and stable over time”.64 The research for Cerff’s 2006 study using the NGSE yielded a Cronbach alpha score of 0.84, indicating a score “consistent with that of Chen et al. and indicates high reliability of the instrument and that the scale yields high reliability in the South African context” 6

In the development of the MTL Scale, Chan revised some of the items and also reduced the initial 46 items to 27 items, finally recording the “Cronbach alpha scores for the three subscales of the MTL scale as being .84, .83, and .74; indicating high reliability”.'66

In Cerff’s 2006 study, she noted: “Some differences between the reliability in Singapore and the United States and that of the South African context were found.”67 The Cronbach alpha scores in the initial analysis were disappointing, as the “Cronbach alpha score for the Affective-Identity MTL subscale was .09; for the social-normative MTL subscale, it was .59; and for the Non-Calculative MTL subscale, it was .2d.”68 Further analyses were conducted following the Cronbach alpha scores indicating poor to mediocre reliability. The outcome was a revised MTL Scale, firstly isolating the leading for self-benefit factor, which is characterized by a self-centered motivation in leading. The second factor that was isolated was the group- centred leading factor, which is characterized by leading focused on the group’s interests. These new factors were abbreviated as MTL-S, for the leading for self-benefit factor, and yielded a Cronbach alpha score of 0.75; and MTL-G, for group-centred leading factor, which yielded a Cronbach alpha score of 0.77. According to Cerff: “The new Cronbach alpha scores indicated high reliability greatly increasing confidence in the empirically derived revised model that was adapted for the South African context.”69 According to Cerff, the hypotheses associated with the MTL concept were tested with the two new factors and modified to distinguish between the two differently motivated new factors as follows:

H4a There is a causal relationship in which hope, self-efficacy, and the dummy variable Christian as well as the dummy variables Black, White-English, White-Afrikaans, and Colored predict MTL-S.

H4 There is a causal relationship in which hope, self-efficacy, and the

dummy variable Christian as well as the dummy variables Black, White-English, White-Afrikaans, and Colored predict MTL-G.70

 
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