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Findings Associated with the Hypotheses: Differences in MTL Between Ethnic Groups and Religious Affiliations

The third set of hypotheses concentrated on MTL, covering potential differences between different ethnic groups and religious affiliations. The results of the analysis showed no significance, indicating that there was no difference in the MTL of the four groups. Cerff observed that a plausible explanation was that “most of the respondents were children prior to democratic rule in the nation, negative effects are not evident; and there are no residual negative effects of the nation’s history on the different groups with relation to MTL”,91 and that it was the current political dispensation and economic climate that affected the MTL in the groups.

Findings Associated with the Hypotheses: Predictors of MTL

The fourth set of hypotheses concentrated on the potential predictors of MTL. The results of these analyses associated with the potential predictors of MTL-S indicated that the variables of hope, self-efficacy and Christian are predictors. The most important predictor of MTL-S is hope, thereafter Christian and self-efficacy. As each of these variables had a negative p reported, an inverse relationship between independent variables and the dependent variable is indicated; therefore, the more hope and self-efficacy, the less MTL-S is present.

Cerff observed that the findings highlighted the importance of integrating “strong moral values and a positive approach in the education of youth from a young age, as well as in the training and development of leaders, to establish an environment in which individuals have high hope and self-efficacy”,92 and noted the “advantages of establishing individuals in the Christian faith”.93

The results of the analyses associated with the potential predictors of MTL-G indicated that self-efficacy was the only significant predictor, and that the more self-efficacy, the more likely leading with the interests of the group would occur. Cerff noted that this finding reinforced the “ smportance of developing individuals with positive self-efficacy in order to establish leaders”.94

The study also showed the potential ability of the revised 13-item, two- factor MTL Instrument to identify certain character traits present in individuals. Cerff noted that the instrument would be helpful “i n a career guidance counseling setting, the items that highlight MTL-S would be useful in directing such individuals towards a career in which this tendency could be effectively utilized”.95 In addition, the revised instrument would be valuable for organizations seeking to know how prospective employees are motivated to lead, whether for self-benefit or group-motivated benefit, as differently motivated leaders would be best suited to uniquely different roles and responsibilities.

Chan’s MTL Instrument was revised to produce the Two-factor MTL Instrument and developed in the study as a result of poor to mediocre reliability of the original instrument in the South African context. The revised instrument returned scores indicating high reliability in this context, thereby making a contribution to the field of leadership studies. The possibility exists of the revised Two-factor MTL Instrument being valuable in other nations, including nations in Africa.

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