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Limitations of the Study

The limitations of the study were twofold: firstly the study was partially regional, and a larger study could incorporate students from a broader spectrum nationally, which may produce differences in variables across ethnicity, language and religious affiliation groups. The second limitation related to the significant difference in hope between practising Christian and Muslims; however as the Muslim sample was very small, it is anticipated that a larger study incorporating 100 participants from each of the religious groups represented would produce more useful results.

Recommendations for Future Research

As hope theory is still a young field, opportunities exist for future research that could further explore the links ascertained in this study between hope, self-efficacy and MTL in the development of leaders, including “how leadership development could incorporate hope theory and other positive psychology in its approach”96 and “longitudinalstudies examining raising hope through leadership development that incorporates hope theory”.97 Opportunities exist for further use of Winston et al.’s Hope Instrument both in South Africa and in other nations. The use of both Chan’s MTL Instrument as well as the Revised Two-factor MTL Instrument can be explored, depending on the reliability of each of these instruments in different nations and contexts. The shortened Revised Two-factor MTL Instrument would be valuable, as participants noted the long length of the original instrument, hence a shortened version may result in “a more positive approach by participants and more reliable results in the future”.98

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