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International transfers

The Regulations govern international transfers—t ransfers between players of clubs belonging to different associations. As far as the EU is concerned, this will normally mean an inter-state transfer and the consequent application of EU law, but, because of the particular case of the United Kingdom—which contains one member of the EU but four members of UEFA—this will not always be the case. Domestic transfers—those between clubs belonging to the same association—are governed by the regulations of the local governing body, subject to the inclusion of certain mandatory provisions which ensure a degree of convergence between the FIFA rules on international transfers and domestic rules.71 However, as already explained, even rules governing transfers within a single EU Member State are likely to fall for examination in the light of EU competition law in so far as they affect inter-state trade patterns. In fact in most material respects domestic transfer systems follow the model of the FIFA rules. This is perfectly understandable. It promotes coherence and avoids points of friction that might create perverse incentives to prefer a domestic transfer over an international one or vice versa.

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