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Biosafety and the environmental uses of micro-organisms : conference proceedings.

Outcomes of the OECD conference on the “Environmental Uses of Micro-Organisms”Prospects and potential new biosafety projects for the OECDReferencesI The use of micro-organisms in agricultureBiofertilizers: Present and future use of transgenic micro-organismsSymbiotic biofertilizersFree-living or non-symbiotic biofertilizersPhytohormones mediated mechanisms of plant growth promotion induced by micro-organismsHelper bacteriaConclusionReferencesPhytosanitation and the development of transgenic biocontrol agentsMechanisms of plant defenseBiological control by indigenous and introduced micro-organismsBarriers to the wider use of biocontrol technologyWhy transgenic biocontrol agents?Competition/pre-emptive exclusionParasitism/predationInduced resistanceAntibiosis/toxin productionMolecular genetic modifications to biocontrol agentsDeletion or mutation of existing genesAlteration of gene regulationIntroduction of heterologous genesCase study: Introduction of phenazine genes into Pseudomonas spp.ConclusionNoteLessons of the impact of genetically engineered micro-organisms on natural ecosystems like soilUse of genetically modified micro-organismsThe potential (adverse) impact of genetically modified micro-organisms on ecosystemsThe need to define normality in target ecosystems like soilThe great plate count anomaly and methods that can overcome itThe soil ecosystem - its natural (normal) status, functioning and resilienceNutrient cycling function of soilSuppressiveness of plant diseaseResilience of soilThe normal operating range of soil function as the grand descriptor of normalityOutlookReferencesII The use of microalgae for production purposesThe need and risks of using transgenic microalgae for the production of food, feed, chemicals and fuelsImportance of transgenic microalgaeGenetic modification of algaeGenetically modified algal strains and their stability: DNA delivery methodsTargets of algal genetic modificationImprovement of photosynthetic efficiencyImprovement ofproductivity of selected productsNew productsEuropean regulations for working with genetically modified organismsRisks related to production systems of (GM-)algaeOverview of potential risks of GM-algae for human health and the environmentSafety of the algae, the insert, vector and the GM-algaeReferencesThe benefits and advantages of commercial algal biomass harvestingConcept of bioremediation using microalgae with value-adding co-product developmentTaxonomic affiliations: Implications for potential end product useConsiderations for strain selection for commercial-scale algal productionCultivation considerationsHarvest and process considerationsConclusionReferencesIssues in the risk assessment of the use of microalgae for production purposesActivities of the Algae Working Group of the Biomass Research and Development BoardExample: The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA)Issues identified by the United States Environmental Protection AgencyConclusionFamiliarity with key algal speciesFamiliarity with a variety of existing production facility designsNotesReferencesIII The use of micro-organisms for bioremediationDesigning bacteria for the environment: From trial and error to earnest engineeringGenetically modified organisms for the environment: What went wrong?Think big: Global challengesThe onset of systems biologySynthetic biology: The next frontierNew risks in sight?ReferencesThe intentional release of micro-organisms into the environment: Challenges to commercial useRemediation technologiesBioremediationTechnologies involved in bioremediationEnvironmental risks of bioremediationNature protection and the introduction into the environment of micro-organismsExamples of use of released micro-organisms in bioremediationChallenges to commercial use of bioremediation technologiesConclusionReferencesIV The use of micro-organisms in cleaning productsMicrobial-based cleaning products in use and the potential role of transgenic micro-organismsSurvey of microbes currently used in cleaning productsKnown uses of these productsMicrobial species used in these productsOther bacterial generaFungal speciesPotential targets of gene modificationEnzymesBiosurfactants/bio-emulsifiersPotential human health and environmental issuesIssues related to the micro-organism itselfIssues related to formulation/use of productRegulatory experiences in Canada with these productsAssessments of “new” micro-organisms in cleaning products in CanadaDSL micro-organisms in cleaning products in CanadaKnowledge gap in the use of Microbial-based cleaning productsConclusionReferencesMicrobes in cleaning products: Regulatory experience and challenges for risk assessmentRationale of using micro-organisms in cleaning productsProducts and applicationsMicrobial cleaners in the context of legislationEU-harmonised legislationOccupational healthDetergent legislationEU chemical legislation — REACHEU biocide legislationUnited States and CanadaHealth and environmental risksThe reliability of a key step in risk assessment — taxonomic identification — remains unclearHow to avoid unwanted microbes in cleaning productsPossible concerns in case of chronic respiratory exposureEnvironmental risks of the microbesConclusionStakeholder and public informationMore science on the mechanismHealth risksLegislationProspects for genetically modified micro-organisms in cleaning productsNoteReferencesV Environmental applications of microbial symbionts of insectsUse and release of mosquitoes for the control of dengue transmission: A world-first trial in AustraliaThe use of Wolbachia as a biocontrol agentField releases of Wolbachia-mosquitoes in Australia: The regulatory processWolbachia establishment in north Queensland mosquito populationsFuture directions for WolbachiaAlternative technological strategies for disease controlNotesReferencesFighting malaria with engineered mosquito symbiotic bacteriaTransgenic mosquitoesParatransgenesisChallenges aheadReferencesVI Environmental risk assessment of the deliberate release of engineered micro-organismsNext generation sequencing-based metagenomics for monitoring soil microbiotaNext-generation sequencingpyroseqencingBacterial species concept and its use of genome sequence in taxonomy and metagenomicsMicrobial community analysis: Conventional methodsMicrobial community analysis: MetagenomicsSoil metagenomics: Practical applicationsConclusionReferencesReflection on environmental risk assessment of micro-organismsTarget of risk assessmentDifficulty of using an analytical approach in assessing risk of micro-organisms used in the environmentReferencesRisk assessment considerations of genetically modified micro-organisms for releasesMicrobial community networks and resilienceRisk assessments based on information on recipientsEnvironmental performance and containmentHorizontal gene transferConclusionReferencesOverarching issues in the environmental risk assessment of deliberate release of transgenic micro-organismsExploitation of bacterial diversity in the environmentHorizontal gene transfer of transgenic DNASoil as a heterogeneous and complex environmentReferences

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