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Microalgal commercial-scale cultivation is achievable and superior with regards to biomass productivities to terrestrial crops, showing tremendous potential for the bioremediation of gaseous wastes and polluted waters, whilst affording cost recovery through value-adding co-product development. Simple commercially viable systems exist to produce sufficient biomass today, but a more integrated approach and complete lifecycle analyses still need to be conducted to evaluate large-scale potential environmental implications. The most promising approach to renewable energy and fuel production from microalgae lies in designing an integrated approach for cheap and environmentally/energetically cultivation, dewatering and applying new technologies for the conversion of the complete biomass, such as hydrothermal liquefaction, particularly for the generation of renewable aviation fuel.


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