It is important to emphasise that while many technical aspects have been successfully addressed, several major issues need to be considered before paratransgenesis can be implemented. One key issue is to devise means to effectively introduce the engineered bacteria into mosquitoes in the field. One possible approach that is beginning to be explored is to place baiting stations (cotton balls soaked with sugar and bacteria and placed in clay jars) around villages where malaria is prevalent. Other major topics that need to be addressed are the resolution of regulatory, ethical and social issues related to the release of genetically modified bacteria in nature.
Agnandji, S.T., et al. (2011), “RTS,S clinical trials partnership. First results of Phase 3 trial of RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine in African children”, New England Journal of Medecine, No. 365, pp. 1 863-1 875.
Bhatnagar, R.K., et al. (2003), “Synthetic propeptide inhibits mosquito midgut chitinase and blocks sporogonic development of malaria parasite”, Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, No. 304, pp. 783-787.
Chen, C.H., et al. (2007), “A synthetic maternal-effect selfish genetic element drives population replacement in Drosophila”, Science, No. 316, pp. 597-600.
Conde, R., et al. (2000), “Scorpine, an anti-malaria and anti-bacterial agent purified from scorpion venom”, FEBSLetters, No. 471, pp. 165-168.
Deredec, A., H.C. Godfray and A. Burt (2011), “Requirements for effective malaria control with homing endonuclease genes”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, No. 108, pp. E874-880.
Drexler, A.L., Y. Vodovotz and S. Luckhart (2008), “Plasmodium development in the mosquito: Biology bottlenecks and opportunities for mathematical modeling”, Trends in Parasitology, No. 24, pp. 333-336.
Ghosh, A.K., et al. (2011), “Plasmodium ookinetes coopt mammalian plasminogen to invade the mosquito midgut”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, No. 108, pp. 17 153-17 158.
Ghosh, A.K., P.E.M. Ribolla and M. Jacobs-Lorena (2001), “Targeting Plasmodium ligands on mosquito salivary glands and midgut with a phage display peptide library”,
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, No. 98, pp. 13 278-13 281.
Ito, J., et al. (2002), “Transgenic anopheline mosquitoes impaired in transmission of a malaria parasite”, Nature, No. 417, pp. 452-455.
Jaynes, J.M., et al. (1988), “In vitro cytocidal effect of novel lytic peptides on
Plasmodium falciparum and Trypanosoma cruzi”, FASEB Journal, No. 13, pp. 2 878-2 883.
Maxmen, A. (2012), “Malaria surge feared”, Nature, No. 485.
Moreira, L.A., et al. (2002), “Bee venom phospholipase inhibits malaria parasite development in transgenic mosquitoes”, Journal of Biological Chemistry, No. 277, pp. 40 839-40 843.
Powell, J.R., et al. (1999), “Population structure, speciation, and introgression in the
Anopheles gambiae complex”, Parassitologia, No. 41, pp. 101-113.
Pumpuni, C.B., et al. (1996), “Bacterial population dynamics in three anopheline species: The impact on Plasmodium sporogonic development”, American Journal of Tropical Medecine and Hygiene, No. 54, pp. 214-218.
Riehle, M.A., et al. (2007), “Using bacteria to express and display anti-Plasmodium molecules in the mosquito midgut”, International Journal of Parasitology, No. 37, pp. 595-603.
Riehle, M.A., et al. (2003), “Towards genetic manipulation of wild mosquito populations to combat malaria: Advances and challenges”, Journal of Experimental Biology, No. 206, pp. 3 809-3 816.
Straif, S.C., et al. (1998), “Midgut bacteria in Anopheles gambiae and An. funestus (Diptera: Culicidae) from Kenya and Mali”, Journal of Medical Entomology, No. 35,
Tzschaschel, B.D., et al. (1996), “An Escherichia coli hemolysin transport system-based vector for the export of polypeptides: Export of shiga-like toxin IIeB subunit by
Salmonella typhimurium aroA”, National Biotechnology, No. 14, pp. 765-769.
Wang, S., et al. (2012), “Fighting malaria with engineered symbiotic bacteria from vector mosquitoes”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 16 June, Epub ahead of print.