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  • 1. For urban data going back many decades, see Historical Statistics of the United States, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Department of Commerce, Washington, DC.
  • 2. Adna Weber, The Growth of Cities in the Nineteenth Century, The Macmillan Company, New York, 1899. Reprinted by Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY, 1963, p. 20.
  • 3. Ibid., p. 460.
  • 4. For discussion of the relationship between transportation costs and the growth of cities in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, see Alan Pred, City Systems in Advanced Economies, John Wiley, New York, 1977.
  • 5. Frank S. So et al., eds., The Practice of Local Government Planning, International City Managers Association, Washington, DC, 1979, p. 27.
  • 6. James Ford, "Residential and Industrial Decentralization," in City Planning, 2nd edn, John Nolen, ed., D. Appleton & Co., New York, 1929, pp. 334 and 335. The first edition was printed in 1916, and the article appears to have been written between 1910 and 1916.
  • 7. Sam Bass Warner, Streetcar Suburbs: A Process of Growth in Boston, Atheneum, New York, 1968.
  • 8. H.G. Wells, Anticipation: The Reaction of Mechanical and Scientific Progress on Human Life and Thought, Harper & Row, London, 1902, quoted in Post Industrial America: Metropolitan Decline and Inter-Regional Job Shifts, George Sternlieb and James W. Hughes, eds., Rutgers University Center for Urban Policy Research, New Brunswick, NJ, 1975, p. 176.
  • 9. Robert E. Lang and Jennifer B. Lefurgy, Boomburgs: The Rise of America's Accidental Cities, Brookings Institution Press, Washington, DC, 2007.
  • 10. Ibid., p. 14.
  • 11. The term is in very widespread use but does not have a precise, commonly agreed upon definition. In a general way it refers to the increasing interrelationship and interdependence among nations due to, but not entirely limited to, the increase in world trade as a percentage of total world output, increasing travel and migration between nations, the increasing importance of multinational corporations, the increasing international flows of capital and increasing interaction between capital markets in different nations, and the increasing amount of communication of all sorts across national boundaries.
  • 12. For a vivid description of the impact of mechanization on black tenant farmers in the production of cotton in the immediate postWorld War II period, see Nicholas Lemann, The Promised Land: The Great Black Migration and How It Changed America, Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 1991, pp. 5-6.
  • 13. For an exposition of the view that much of our present problem with poverty, family breakup, and crime in central cities in the latter part of the twentieth century resulted from lack of job opportunities, see the work of William J. Wilson, most recently When Work Disappears, Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 1997. For a somewhat different perspective, see Robert D. Waldinger, Still the Promised City?, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1996.
  • 14. Stephen D. Levitt and Stephen J Dubner, Freakonomiss, Harper Collins e-books, 2002, chapter 4.
  • 15. Richard Florida, Cities and the Creative Class, Routledge, New York, 2005.
  • 16. Ehrenhalt, Alan, The Great Inverson and the Future of the American City, Alfred A. Knopf, 2010, Chapter 9.


Callow, Alexander B., American Urban History, Oxford University Press, 1973.

Ehrenhalt, Alan, The Great Inversion and the Future of the American City, Alfred A. Knoph, 2012.

Glaab, Charles N., and Brown, Theodore A., A Histry of Urban America, The Macmillan Company, New York, 1973.

Katz, Bruce and Bradley, Jennifer, The Metropolitan Revolution: How Cities and

Metros are Fixing opur Broken Politics and Fragile Economy, Brookings Institution Press, Washington, DC 2013.

McKelvey, Blake, The Urbanization of America, Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, NJ, 1963.

Weber, Adna, The Growth of Cities in the Nineteenth Century, first printed in 1899, reprinted by Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY, 1967.

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