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  • 1. A graphic and entertaining account of the Pruitt-Igoe fiasco may be found in Tom Wolfe, From Bauhaus to Our House, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, New York, 1981.
  • 2. See William J. Wilson, The Truly Disadvantaged, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, 1987.
  • 3. Richard Benjamin, "The Gated Community Mentality," New York Times, Op.Ed. page, March 29, 2012.
  • 4. Bill Bishop, The Big Sort, Houghton Mifflin, New York, 2008, p. 212.
  • 5. Edward Blakely, "Viewpoint," Planning, January 1994, p. 46.
  • 6. Christopher Lasch, The Revolt of the Elites and the Betrayal of Democracy, W.W. Norton, New York, 1995, and Bill Bishop, The Big Sort.
  • 7. David Guterson, "No Place Like Home," Harper's Magazine, November 1992, pp. 55-61.
  • 8. The idea that a greater number of communities would maximize consumer choice (the citizen is regarded as a consumer of public services) and move the market for public services toward the economists' model of the perfect market goes by the name of the Tiebout hypothesis, after the economist Charles Tiebout. A presentation of the idea may be found in Ronald C. Fisher, State and Local Public Finance, 2nd edn, Richard D. Irwin Co., Chicago, IL, 1996, ch. 5. The hypothesis was originally propounded in an article by Tiebout, "A Pure Theory of Local Expenditures," Journal of Political Economy, October 1956, p. 422.
  • 9. William Tucker, "How Housing Regulations Cause Homelessness," The Public Interest, winter 1991, pp. 78-88.
  • 10. Despite the very large concentration of the wealthy, particularly in Manhattan, the city's population as a whole is not particularly wealthy and, in fact, the city's

poverty rate is somewhat above the U.S. average.

  • 11. Income and Affordability Study, 2012, New York City Rent Guidelines Board, New York, p. 9.
  • 12. The vacancy rate is probably reduced somewhat because the city has rent controls on a substantial part of its rental stock, particularly at lower rent levels.
  • 13. A progressive tax is one that taxes higher incomes at higher rates than it taxes lower incomes. The most prominent example in the United States is the federal income tax.
  • 14. Pierre Clavel, The Progressive City: Planning and Participation, 1969-1984, Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, NJ, 1987, ch. 3.
  • 15. EPA press release, June 22, 2004. This release and other information is available on an EPA website, environmental justice/.
  • 16. Karen Finucan, "Gay Today," Planning, February 2000, pp. 12-16. GALIP's website is lobby/7016/galip.htm.
  • 17. Betty Friedan, The Feminine Mystique, W.W. Norton, New York, 1963.
  • 18. At present, enrollments in U.S. planning schools are about equally divided between men and women so that however much male dominance there is in the field, this should be reduced as more women rise to senior positions.
  • 19. For a sampling of arguments and references to the feminist planning literature, see Susan S. Fainstein and Lisa J. Servon, eds., Gender and Planning, Rutgers University Press, 2004; and Barbara Rahder and Carol Altilia, "Where Is Feminism in Planning Going: Appropriation or Transformation," Planning Theory, vol. 3, no. 2, 2004, pp. 107-116.


Anderson, Wayne R., Frieden, Bernard J., and Murphy, Michael J., EDS., Managing Human Services, International City Management Association, Washington, DC, 1997.

Bolan, Richard S., "Social Planning and Policy Development," in The Practice of Local Government Planning, International City Management Association, Washington, DC, 1979.

Clavel, Pierre, The Progressive City: Planning and Participation, 1969-1984, Rutgers

University Press, New Brunswick, N], 1987.

Howfe, Elizabeth, "Social Aspects of Physical Planning," in The Practice of Local Government Planning, 2nd edn, International City Management Association, Washington, DC, 1988.

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