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  • 1. For a discussion of the relationship between design and safety from crime, see Oscar Newman, Defensible Space, The Macmillan Company, New York, 1972.
  • 2. An old but widely used set of methods is contained in Robert W. Burchell and David Listokin, The New Practitioners Fiscal Impact Handbook, Rutgers University Center for Urban Policy Research, New Brunswick, NJ, 1985. For a recent example see Blue Sky Consulting Group, Analysis of Fiscal and Economic Effects of New Housing Construction in California, Sacramento, CA, 2010. Many other studies may be found on the web by googling "Studies' fiscal impact of housing".
  • 3. Norman Krumholz, "A Retrospective on Equity Planning: Cleveland, 1969-79," with comments, APA Journal, vol. 48, no. 2, Spring 1982, pp. 163-184.
  • 4. For an introductory account of this technique and comparison with other techniques, see F. Stuart Chapin and Edward J. Kaiser, Urban Land Use Planning, 3rd edn, University of Illinois Press, Urbana, 1979, ch. 6.
  • 5. The terms forecast and projection are often used interchangeably, but to demographers there is a distinction. The former implies the analyst's best estimate of what will happen. The latter is simply a mathematical exercise showing what the population will be if certain rates of birth, death, in migration, and outmigration are obtained. A forecast can be proven right or wrong by future events. But a projection, if the mathematics is done correctly, cannot be said to be wrong.
  • 6. See Edward J. Kaiser, David R. Godschalk, and F. Stuart Chapin, Jr., Urban Land Use Planning, 4th ed., University of Illinois Press, Urban, 1995.
  • 7. The cities that went bankrupt in this time period were Detroit, San Bernadino and Stockton in California, Jefferson County, Alabama and Central Falls, Rhode Island. Three other cities filed for bankruptcy but the courts rejected their applications. In other words the courts decided that they had sufficient resources to handle their debts. In addition to municipal bankruptcies there were several times that many for utilities and other districts, generally entities that depend upon revenue bonds, a matter discussed in Chapter 9. Governing, December, 2013, online at www.governing. com/gov-data/municiplal-cities


Anderson, Larz T., Guidelines for Preparing Urban Plans, American Planning Association, Chicago, 1995.

Anderson, Larz T., Planning the Built Environment, American Planning Association, Chicago, 2000.

Branch, Melville C., Continuous City Planning, John Wiley, New York, 1981.

Hoch, Charles J., Dalton, Linda C., and So, Frank S., eds., The Practice of Local

Government Planning, International City Management Association, Washington, DC, 2000.

Kaiser, Edward J., Godschalk, David R., and Chapin, F. Stuart, Urban land Use Planning, 4th ed., University of Illinois Press, Urbana, 1995.

Kent, T. J., The Urban General Plan, Chandler, San Francisco, 1964.

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