1. Lewis Mumford, The Culture of Cities, Har- court Brace Jovanovich, New York, 1970, p. 5, originally printed in 1938.
2. City-data.com/neighborhood/Battery- Park. Considerable data are available on BPC online including the BPC website.
3. An overview of the project as well as long- range plans for theories around the project may be found on the website of the New York City Planning Department and the Hudson Yards Development Corporation.
4. Kevin Lynch, The Image of the City, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1960.
5. Personal communication.
6 . William H. Whyte, The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces, The Conservation Foundation, Washington, DC, 1980.
7. Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Vintage Books, Random House, New York, 1961.
8. Clarence A. Perry, "The Neighborhood Unit Formula," reprinted in Urban Planning Theory, Melville C. Branch, ed., Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross, Stroudsburg, PA, 1975, pp. 44-58.
9. Andres Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, and Jeff Speck, Suburban Nation, North Point Press, a division of Farrar Straus and Giroux, New York, 2000.
10. Data on housing prices may be found on the web at www.census.gov./newhomesales.
11. Joel Garreau, Edge City: Life on the New Frontier, New York, Doubleday, 1991, p. 6.
12. Maps and details on the Metro extension may be found at www.Dullesmetro.com. Information on planning for Tyson's Corner as it evolves may be obtained from the Fairfax County Planning Department through Fairfaxcounty.gov. Wikipedia has a good article giving background on Tyson's Corner and providing a number of useful links.
13. Le Corbusier's vision comes from the period shortly before to shortly after World War I. Frank Lloyd Wright began work on the Broad Acre City concept in the 1930s. Buckminster Fuller began work on the geodesic dome as a type of structure in the 1930s. The proposal for the dome over midtown Manhattan dates from the 1960s. So, too, does Soleri's megastructure.
14. Although Le Corbusier did not build very much himself, his ideas have had a huge influence on both architecture and urban design during much of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. Probably the best summary of those ideas is his book Towards a New Architecture, Dover Publications, New York, 1986 (first published in 1931).
15. Frank Lloyd Wright, The Living City, Horizon Press, New York, 1958.
16. Information on Masdar may be found by googling Masdar or Foster and Partners.