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  • 1. Federal Highway Administration, Highway Statistics Annual, 2008, www.FederalHigh
  • 2. Public Transportation Fact Book, 2011, American Public Transportation Association, Table 2,
  • 3. Ibid., Table 3.
  • 4. Ibid., Table 8.
  • 5. Train a Grande Vitesse (train of great speed) and Alta (high) Velocidad Espanola.
  • 6. Association for California High-Speed Train's website, www.highspeedtrainsforca. com.
  • 7. AmTrak's best-known train is the Acela, which runs between Boston, New York, and Washington, DC, the so-called Bowash corridor, probably the largest potential passenger rail market in the United States. The 456-mile trip takes about 7 hours, for an average speed of about 68 mph. The service is popular, carrying over 2 million passengers per year. But for the two reasons noted in the text, its speed is no better than half that of comparable trips on Europe's fastest routes.
  • 8. Public Transportation Fact Book, Tables 19 and 20.
  • 9. Chicago Area Transportation Study: Final Reports (3 Vols.), published jointly by the State of Illinois, County of Cook, City of Chicago, and the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Public Roads, 1959-1962.
  • 10. John W. Dickey, Metropolitan Transportation Planning, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1983, chap. 6.
  • 11. Keith Bartholomew and Reid Ewing, "Land Use-Transportation Scenarios and Future Vehicle Travel and Land Consumption," Journal of the American Planning Association, vol. 75, no. 1, Winter 2009, pp. 13-27.
  • 12. For a discussion of this technique, see Michael J. Moore and Kip W. Viscusi, "Doubling the Estimated Value of Life: Results Using New Occupational Fatality Data," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, vol. 7, no. 3, 1988, p. 476.
  • 13. Anthony Downs, "The Law of Peak-Hour Congestion," Urban Problems and Prospects, Rand-McNally, Chicago, 1976.
  • 14. Harold Henderson, "Light Rail, Heavy Costs," Planning, October 1994, pp. 8-13.
  • 15. Christopher Swope, "L.A. Banks on Buses," Planning, May 2006, pp. 33-36.
  • 16. F. K. Plous, Jr., "Refreshing ISTEA," Planning, February 1993, pp. 9-12.
  • 17. Federal Highway Administration, Office of Legislation and Intergovernmental Affairs, Program Analysis Team, "A Summary of Highway Provisions in SAFETEA-LU," Washington, DC, 2005, gov/safetea-lu/summary.htm.
  • 18. Janusz Supernak, "HOT Lanes on Interstate 15 in San Diego: Technology, Impacts and Equity Issues," San Diego State University, 2005. This article, and many others on the subject, is readily available by Googling HOT Lanes.
  • 19. In 2011 Nissan claimed that its all-electric LEAF got 100 miles from 34 kwh.


Dickey, John W., Metropolitan Transportation Planning, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1983.

DiMento, Joseph F.C., and Ellis, Cliff, Changing Lanes: Visions and Histories of Urban Freeways, MIT Press, Boston, 2012.

Meyer, Michael D., and Miller, Eric J., Urban Transportation Planning, 2nd ed., McGraw- Hill Book Co., New York, 2001.

Roess, R.P., Prassas, E.L., McShane, W.R., Traffic Engineering Prentice Hall, New York, 3rd edition, 2004.

Vanderbilti, Tom, Traffic: Why We Drive the Way We Do (And What It Says About Us). Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 2008.

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