1. Federal Highway Administration, Highway Statistics Annual, 2008, www.FederalHigh wayAdministration.gov.
2. Public Transportation Fact Book, 2011, American Public Transportation Association, Table 2, www.APTA.com.
3. Ibid., Table 3.
4. Ibid., Table 8.
5. Train a Grande Vitesse (train of great speed) and Alta (high) Velocidad Espanola.
6. Association for California High-Speed Train's website, www.highspeedtrainsforca. com.
7. AmTrak's best-known train is the Acela, which runs between Boston, New York, and Washington, DC, the so-called Bowash corridor, probably the largest potential passenger rail market in the United States. The 456-mile trip takes about 7 hours, for an average speed of about 68 mph. The service is popular, carrying over 2 million passengers per year. But for the two reasons noted in the text, its speed is no better than half that of comparable trips on Europe's fastest routes.
8. Public Transportation Fact Book, Tables 19 and 20.
9. Chicago Area Transportation Study: Final Reports (3 Vols.), published jointly by the State of Illinois, County of Cook, City of Chicago, and the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Public Roads, 1959-1962.
10. John W. Dickey, Metropolitan Transportation Planning, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1983, chap. 6.
11. Keith Bartholomew and Reid Ewing, "Land Use-Transportation Scenarios and Future Vehicle Travel and Land Consumption," Journal of the American Planning Association, vol. 75, no. 1, Winter 2009, pp. 13-27.
12. For a discussion of this technique, see Michael J. Moore and Kip W. Viscusi, "Doubling the Estimated Value of Life: Results Using New Occupational Fatality Data," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, vol. 7, no. 3, 1988, p. 476.
13. Anthony Downs, "The Law of Peak-Hour Congestion," Urban Problems and Prospects, Rand-McNally, Chicago, 1976.
14. Harold Henderson, "Light Rail, Heavy Costs," Planning, October 1994, pp. 8-13.
15. Christopher Swope, "L.A. Banks on Buses," Planning, May 2006, pp. 33-36.
16. F. K. Plous, Jr., "Refreshing ISTEA," Planning, February 1993, pp. 9-12.
17. Federal Highway Administration, Office of Legislation and Intergovernmental Affairs, Program Analysis Team, "A Summary of Highway Provisions in SAFETEA-LU," Washington, DC, 2005, www.fhwa.dot. gov/safetea-lu/summary.htm.
18. Janusz Supernak, "HOT Lanes on Interstate 15 in San Diego: Technology, Impacts and Equity Issues," San Diego State University, 2005. This article, and many others on the subject, is readily available by Googling HOT Lanes.
19. In 2011 Nissan claimed that its all-electric LEAF got 100 miles from 34 kwh.
Dickey, John W., Metropolitan Transportation Planning, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1983.
DiMento, Joseph F.C., and Ellis, Cliff, Changing Lanes: Visions and Histories of Urban Freeways, MIT Press, Boston, 2012.
Meyer, Michael D., and Miller, Eric J., Urban Transportation Planning, 2nd ed., McGraw- Hill Book Co., New York, 2001.
Roess, R.P., Prassas, E.L., McShane, W.R., Traffic Engineering Prentice Hall, New York, 3rd edition, 2004.
Vanderbilti, Tom, Traffic: Why We Drive the Way We Do (And What It Says About Us). Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 2008.