1. For a picture of the economics of transportation in the United States at the beginning of the nineteenth century, see Alan Pred,
City Systems in Advanced Economies, John Wiley, New York, 1977.
2. Alfred Eichner, State Development Agencies and Employment Expansion, University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 1970.
3. Robert Guskind, "The Giveaway Game Continues," Planning, February 1990, pp. 4-8.
4. In general this would mean moving to a Right to Work state.
5. The measured unemployment rate may be very little changed for two reasons. There is the migration effect noted in the text. Also, new jobs may draw in residents who had dropped out of the labor force and thus were no longer counted as unemployed. For a summary of experience on this point, see Gene Summers, The Invasion of Nonmetropolitan America by Industry: A Quarter Century of Experience, Praeger, New York, 1976. See also Wilbur Thompson, "Economic Processes and Employment Problems in Declining Metropolitan Areas," in Post Industrial America: Metropolitan Decline and Job Shifts, George Sternlieb and James W. Hughes, eds., Center for Urban Policy Research, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, 1976.
6. Homeowners pay property taxes directly. Renters pay them indirectly since they are a cost that the landlord must cover and thus are passed on to the renter. As a rule of thumb, property taxes account for about a quarter of the total rent. All people also pay property taxes indirectly whenever
they make a purchase, since property taxes are a cost that retailers, wholesalers, service businesses, manufacturers, etc. must cover. As a political matter, homeowners tend to be acutely aware of property taxes while renters generally are not.
7. The term comes from game theory and refers to a game in which the total sum of winnings must necessarily equal the total sum of losses, say, several people playing poker together.
8. Jenna Johnson, "Hit Show Gets Maryland's Attention," Washington Post, Section B, p. 1, February 21, 2014.
9. For some examples, see W. Zachary Malinowsky, "Winning the Subsidy Game," Planning, February 2014.
10. Edward W. Hill and John Brennan, "American Central Cities and the Location of Work," Journal of the American Planning Association, vol. 71, no. 2, autumn 2005, pp. 411-432.
11. Not all communities approach economic development in this systematic manner. In many cases, for a variety of political reasons, communities jump into economic development programs without much planning, and the program largely amounts to a matter of shooting at targets of opportunity. See H.J. Rubin, "Shoot Anything That Flies; Claim Anything That Falls," Journal of the American Planning Association, vol. 56, spring 1988, pp. 153-160; and John M. Levy, "What Local Economic Developers Actually Do: Location Quotients Versus Press Releases," Journal of the American Planning Association, spring 1990, pp. 153-161.