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A LIST OF SUSTAINABLE PLANNING TECHNIQUES

In 2001 Edward J. Jepson, Jr. surveyed some hundreds of municipal governments to see what steps they were taking to pursue sustainable development.20 He asked them about 39 categories of actions. These categories are shown in the list that follows to provide a sense of the range of sustainable development. Those whose meaning is not selfevident or explained elsewhere in this book are explained in the notes that follow. The measures listed here address the three Es as well as local self-sufficiency and include both direct actions and steps to gather information to support subsequent actions.21

  • 1. Agricultural district provisions
  • 2. Agricultural protection zoning
  • 3. Bicycle-access plan
  • 4. Brownfield reclamation
  • 5. Community indicators program
  • 6. Community gardening
  • 7. Cooperative housing
  • 8. Eco-industrial park
  • 9. Ecological footprint analysis
  • 10. Environmental-site-design regulations
  • 11. Green-building requirements
  • 12. Green procurement
  • 13. Green maps
  • 14. Green-print plans
  • 15. Greenways development
  • 16. Heat-island analysis
  • 17. Import substitution
  • 18. Incentive/inclusionary zoning
  • 19. Infill development
  • 20. Life-cycle public construction
  • 21. Living-wage ordinance
  • 22. Low-emission vehicles
  • 23. Neotraditional (new urbanist) development
  • 24. Open-space zoning
  • 25. Pedestrian-access plan
  • 26. Purchase of development rights
  • 27. Rehabilitation of building codes
  • 28. Right-to-farm legislation
  • 29. Solar-access protection regulations
  • 30. Solid-waste life-cycle management
  • 31. Tax base/revenue sharing
  • 32. Transfer of development rights
  • 33. Transit-oriented development
  • 34. Transportation demand management
  • 35. Urban growth boundary
  • 36. Urban forestry program
  • 37. Urban-system analysis
  • 38. Wildlife habitat/green corridor planning
  • 39. Wind-energy development.

Notes: Explanations are for items not mentioned elsewhere in this text and whose meanings are not readily apparent. 5. Use of community social, economic, or environmental indicators in making plans. 7. Closely spaced housing with many shared facilities. 8. Industrial parks designed to incorporate good ecological practices. 11. Requiring new buildings to use practices that minimize energy use and other environmental impacts. 12. Taking environmental considerations into municipal purchasing decisions. 14. Municipal planning and mapping that show natural areas slated for acquisition and preservation.

20. Costing public construction to include all phases of the project from inception through demolition and disposal. 22. Favoring low-emission types when purchasing municipal vehicles. 27. Writing building codes to favor rehabilitation and reuse. 36. Tree planting to reduce CO2 in the atmosphere and to facilitate heating and cooling of buildings. (The term has also been used in connection with maintaining small amounts of semi-natural habitat within a municipality.)

Note that items 7, 18, and 21 specifically address equity concerns. Item 17 addresses local self-sufficiency.

Earlier in this chapter we noted that growth management relies in large measure for its implementation on planning tools that were in existence for many years before the term came into being. Similarly, many of the techniques that are used in planning for sustainable development have also been around for some time. For example, many localities have been planning and appropriating monies for open-space acquisition for decades. Another example is that many municipalities have had a long-standing commitment to making provisions for affordable housing. To the extent that planning for sustainable development is a new idea, it is the overall concept and the long time horizon, not the individual techniques, that distinguish it from previous planning efforts.

 
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